Added December 2020
See George Leibert
JOHANNES and ANNA MARGARETHA EHRNHARDT
Johannes Ehrnhardt lived near the city of Worms, Germany, in the early 1700s. (1)
Married Anna Margaretha Funck sometime before 1716. (2)
Jacob Ehrenhardt, born March 12, 1716.
Johannes probably lived in the town of Moersstadt, which is a few miles northwest of the city of Worms. The obituary of his son Jacob says he was born in “Maerstadt near Worms” and baptized as a Lutheran in Dalsheim. There’s no Maerstadt near Worms, but Moerstadt is not only near Worms but it is also very close to Dalsheim, where Jacob was baptized. Moerstadt would have been a small village served by the parish in Dalsheim.
Today, Dalsheim is part of the municipality of Flörsheim-Dalsheim in the German state of Rheinland-Pfalz. It boasts quaint old houses and stretches of its medieval wall. Much of the area suffered during the Thirty Years War in the early 1600s and the War of Palatine Succession in the 1680s and 1690s. Before the wars, Dalsheim had 500 residents, but only 17 families lived there in 1698. Only four of those families were Lutheran. (4)
At this point, Dalsheim’s church records are not easily accessible online. They probably contain much information about Johannes and his family. They might indicate whether the family lived in the area during the troubles of the 1600s or moved there when things settled down. They also probably indicate Johannes’ occupation. It’s possible he was a blacksmith since his son worked in that trade when he settled in America and German sons frequently followed in their fathers’ footsteps.
(1) At this point, Johannes and Anna Margaretha Ehrnhardt are known only from the obituary of their son Jacob, which appears in the records of the Moravian church in Emmaus, Pa. This is available at “Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records,” at Ancestry.com (in German script). An English translation appears in the book “They Came to Emmaus,” compiled by Preston A. Barba, Lehigh Litho, Inc. Bethlehem, Pa., 1960. (2) Anna Margaretha’s surname is listed as Funcken in her son’s obituary. Since Germans added “en” to the last names of women, her actual surname would have been “Funck.” (3) The date come from Jacob obituary. Jacob’s name is spelled a variety of ways in American records. Those kept in German often spell his name Ehrnhardt, while those kept in English usually spell it Ehrenhart. (4) Historical information about Dalsheim appears in the website of the Institute of Historical Regional Studies at the University of Mainz, which relies on information from the book “1200 Jahre Dalsheim,” edited by Wolfgang Gauweiler, published 1966.
JACOB and ANNA BARBARA EHRENHARDT
Jacob Ehrenhardt was born March 12, 1716, in Johannes and Maria Margaretha (Funck) Ehrendardt in Moerstadt, near Worms, Germany. (1)
Married Anna Barbara Andreas on Holy Trinity Sunday in 1740, which would have fallen on June 12 that year. She was born March 24, 1721, to Rudolph and Anna Catharina (Braun) Andres, probably in the town of Boehl, near Mannheim in the Rheinland-Pfalz. (2)
Johannes Ehrenhardt, probably born in 1741. Died Sept. 9, 1750.
Maria Katharina Ehrenhardt, born March 8, 1742. Married Wilhelm Boehler.
Elisabeth Ehrenhardt, born Dec. 27, 1744. Married George Leibert.
Anna Maria Ehrenhardt, born Dec. 6, 1748. Married Henry Knauss.
Johannes Ehrenhardt, born Oct. 18, 1750.
Christina Ehrenhardt, born Jan. 6, 1753. Married Martin Leibert.
Anna Barbara Ehrenhardt, born Oct. 9, 1754. Married John Edmonds.
Sussanna Ehrenhardt, born Feb. 6, 1758. Died within a year.
Sussanna Ehrenhardt, born Jan. 17, 1759. Married Johann Nicolaus Seyfried.
Jacob Ehrenhardt, born Sept. 19, 1769.
Jacob became very active in the Moravian congregation in Emmaus in what is now Lehigh County, Pa. Because of this, many of his activities are recorded in the congregation’s records and in an obituary written by church officials. As a result, we know much more about Jacob than most other ancestors from the mid-1700s.
Jacob’s surname is spelled a variety of ways in American records, which is no surprise since the spelling of many names was haphazard in those days. Records kept in German usually spell his name Ehrnhardt or Ehrenhardt, while those kept in English usually spell it Ehrenhart. (4)
Jacob was born near the German city of Worms, where the Protestant reformer Martin Luther stood before the Holy Roman emperor in 1521 and refused to recant his writings. Jacob’s obituary notes, “He was baptized at Dalsheim and reared in the Lutheran faith.” Moerstadt would have been a small village of several hundred inhabitants that was served by the parish in Dalsheim.
In the decades before Jacob’s birth, the Rheinland was invaded by French armies under King Louis XIV and left destitute. In the early 1700s, many residents of the region – known as Palatines – left for more promising futures in America. Jacob was among them.
Jacob’s obituary says that he left his native land and arrived in Pennsylvania in the fall of 1739. While most subsequent sources accept this, it must have been a mistake since Jacob’s name doesn’t appear on any 1739 passenger lists from Philadelphia, the primary destination of Palatines heading to America. Instead, it seems that he arrived a year earlier. Jacob Erenhart signed a list of “Palatines imported in the Ship Glasgow … Qualified the 9th Day of September 1738.” Jacob Ehrenhart also signed a list of passengers aboard the Glasgow who “did this Day take and subscribe the Oaths to the Government.” The difference in spelling seems to be due to a slip in penmanship. (5) The list notes that the ship had sailed from Rotterdam in the Netherlands and landed in Cowes, England, on the way across the Atlantic.
Within a few months of his arrival, Jacob settled in the area known as Macungie – or Maguntsche to the German residents – in Bucks County, Pa. On Jan. 31, 1740, Jacob Earnhart received a warrant from Pennsylvania’s colonial government for “One hundred & twenty five Acres of Land Situate near Leheigh Creek adjoining George Hoffman’s Land in the said County of Bucks.” (6) Account to “They Came to Emmaus,” a history of the town of Emmaus, “This land lay south of present-day Main Street of Emmaus and his log house stood approximately west of South Keystone Avenue, just south of the Reading Railroad.” (7) In 1752, the area became part of the newly created Northampton County, and soon afterward was included in Salisbury Township. Since 1812, the area has been part of Lehigh County.
In the spring of 1740, Jacob married Barbara Andreas. Her father, Rudolph, also owned land on a branch of the Lehigh Creek. (8) Barbara had immigrated with her family when she was 9 years old. Her family sailed aboard the Thistle of Glasgow, which arrived in Philadelphia on Aug. 29, 1730. (9)
About the time of his marriage, Jacob faced a spiritual crisis which prompted him to join the Moravian church, according to his obituary.
“In the same year, according to his own words, he first became concerned about his spiritual welfare. He felt his way around like a blind man, but more externally than from within, going now to hear this preacher, now to that one, praying more than ever both morning and night, seeking to put aside the evil and to do only the good, but nothing quieted the unrest in his soul. He even began to be doubtful about the preachers. He cast himself at the feet of God and prayed that He might lead him to His people, who might show him the way.
“In 1742 he got to hear about the Brethren whom he visited in Bethlehem and soon became convinced in his heart that they were truly of God’s people. Soon thereupon several Brethren, among them David Nitschmann, visited him and held a song service in his house. They told him of the miracles the dear Saviour had wrought through his Word as told in the Gospels. This became an enduring blessing for him and his wife. Then too he felt that he had been shown a special grace, of which he often reminded himself all his days, namely that the Apostle of the Lord had himself preached here in his house. Not long thereafter he was invited to partake of the Holy Sacrament in Bethlehem.” (10)
The mention of the “Apostle of the Lord” preaching in Jacob’s house is a reference to the great Moravian leader Count Zinzendorf’s visit to Macungie in 1741. “They Came to Emmaus” includes Brother Daniel Neubert’s account of that event: “In the fall of 1741 our dear apostle of the Lord, Count Ludwig von Zinzendorf, came to this county and brought new blessings, not only for our community but for all Pennsylvania. He made known his willingness to bring the sweet Word of Life to all souls that hungered for salvation, when and wherever it was so desired. Thereupon our Brethren Ehrenhardt and Knauss together resolved to invite the Count to come and preach in the house of the former. Count Zinzendorf complied with their request and soon thereafter preached in Ehrenhardt’s house before a large gathering. The Count preached, but rather briefly, on the text, ‘Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it’.” Jacob’s log house was “on or near the site of the old stone house on South Keystone Ave., just across the Reading Railroad,” according to “They Came to Emmaus.” (11)
The visit from Zinzendorf probably occurred on Dec. 2, 1741, according to the author of “They Came to Emmaus.” Soon afterward, Jacob and his neighbors Sebastian Knaus and Andreas Schaus “appealed to our dear apostle (meaning Zinzendorf ), that the congregation in Bethlehem might take them into their spiritual care and have the Word of the Gospels preached to them through the Brethren,” according to Neubert. The Moravian leadership agreed to the request and the neighbors took action. Neubert records: “Some time in the fall of 1742 they began to build a church. The land for the church and for God’s Acre (the graveyard) was donated by Jacob Ehrenhardt. As soon as the church was completed, the Brethren from Bethlehem provided them with preachers.” However, the church was not officially a Moravian congregation. (12)
Later that year, Jacob officially joined the Moravian brethren, an event noted in the diary of the congregation in Bethlehem. An entry in late December states: “In the evening meeting a group of seventeen persons, consisting in part of friends from our own neighborhood, in part of English brethren and sisters from Philadelphia, was introduced to the congregation. Then at their wish and request for fellowship with and participation in the grace, blessing, and peace of our congregation, and for deeper grounding and closer union with each other, they were accepted as charges of the congregation and warmly commended to the Saviour.” Among these new members were Jacob Ehrenhard and his neighbor Sebastian Knaus of “Makunshe.” (13)
Moravians placed high value on education and established boarding schools in many of their communities. In early 1746, Jacob and his neighbor Sebastian drew up plans for a schoolhouse in Macungie. “They Came to Emmaus” describes the school and its activities. “This first schoolhouse was built of logs on land donated by Jacob Ehrenhardt and Sebastian Knauss. We do not know its dimensions, but it must have been a rather large structure to accommodate both the boarding-pupils and so large a teaching staff. The land on which it stood could only have been where the tracts owned by Ehrenhardt and Knauss adjoined. This was a small plot to which they each in 1752 added 25 acres. Some of these 50 acres are comprised in the plot marked No. 19, as shown on the old map of 1760. On this plot, though somewhat reduced, the buildings of the Moravian congregation stand today.” (14)
The following year, leaders in Bethlehem decided it was time to establish a Moravian congregation in the little log church in Macungie. On July 30, Macungie residents traveled to Bethlehem for a ceremony in which they sang, listed to a sermon and were ordained for service in the new congregation. Among them, “Brother and Sister Knauss and Brother and Sister Ehrenhardt were ordained as church wardens,” according to Brother Neubert. (15)
The day is mentioned in Jacob’s obituary: “When Brother Joseph instituted our little Congregation on July 30, 1747 in the Saal at Bethlehem, he became not only a member of the same, but also a co-participant of the Body and Blood of Jesus. At the same time he was ordained as a warden of the congregation, in which capacity he served with zeal and punctuality to the end of his days.” (16)
Aside from his activities related to the Moravian church, Jacob’s name appears in a variety of civil records.
On April 10, 1753, Jacob was naturalized a second time. This time, he and other Moravians in Northampton County affirmed their allegiance to King George II but were not required to take an oath since that would go against their beliefs. Instead, they “being Quakers, or such who conscientiously scruple to take an oath, being also Foreigners, and having complied with the Terms required by the aforesaid act of Parliament, took and subscribed the Qualifications for them appointed by the same act of Parliament, &c.” (17)
On June 21, 1753, Jacob Ernhardt and Joseph Fullard were appointed guardians of Mary Regina, the orphaned daughter of Jacob Beckle. And on Jan. 21, 1754, Jacob Ernhard and John Traxler were appointed guardians of the minor children of the deceased George Hahn – Sebastian, George Adam and Margareth. (18)
During the early 1750s, tensions arose between the English colonies and the Native Americans.
In the summer of 1753, fear of Indian attacks prompted officials in Bethlehem to close Emmaus’ boarding school. Schooling resumed for local pupils before the end of the year, but boarding students continued to attend classes in Bethlehem until the beginning of 1755. On Jan. 10, 1755, the boys returned to Macungie. The Bethlehem Diary reported that Jacob had a role in the move: “The two Brethren, Jacob Ehrenhardt and Sebastian Knauss, as a testimony of their love and joyful reception, had come with their two wagons to fetch the boys.” (19)
However, by the end of the year, the French and Indian War would disrupt life for the Moravian communities in eastern Pennsylvania.
On Nov. 24, 1755, a Native American force descended on the Moravian mission in Gnadenhutten and killed seven men, three women and a child. Only two men, a woman and a child escaped. The article “The Moravians during the French and Indian War,” describes the fallout. “One of those who escaped, David Zeisberger, rode full speed to Bethlehem where he aroused Bishop Spangenberg from his sleep to tell him the doleful news. … Almost immediately Bethlehem became an armed fortress: the principal buildings were surrounded by a stockade, arms and ammunition were hastily brought in from New York, and small stones were even placed inside the widows of the women’s quarters so that the occupants could, in case of an attack, hurl them a the invaders.” (20)
This was a spectacular reaction for a denomination that normally refused to bear arms. However, Spangenberg noted in a letter a few days later that government had a duty to bear the sword to protect the innocent and the Moravian layman had the duty to defend the lives of his family.
“Into this Moravian fortress poured hundreds of refugees – both whites and friendly Indians – and throughout the war years Bethlehem was the scene of much coming and going,” the article on Moravians during the war says. “... On January 4, 1756 the inhabitants and refugees at Bethlehem were greatly encouraged by a letter from the governor promising the erection of a fort at Gnadenhutten. Three days later Benjamin Franklin arrived in the village on his way to Gnadenhutten where he was to supervise the erection of Fort Allen. … [W]hen the Franklin expedition set out for Gnadenhutten, the Brethren sent teams and wagons loaded with tools and supplies.”
Jacob participated in Franklin’s effort. The records of Northampton County contain an “Account of wagons carrying provisions, stores, etc. under the employ of the Province given by Timothy Horsfield, 1756.” On Jan. 15, 1756, the account notes that “Benj-n Franklin, esquire – took the following 7 wagons to Ft. Allen,” and one of which was driven by Jacob Ehrenhardt, who was paid for 30 days’ travel, out from home and back. (21)
In addition, Jacob transported grain to the Moravian Indians who had fled to Bethlehem after the attack on Gnadenhutten. On Nov. 30, 1755, and Feb. 4, 1756, Timothy Horsfield paid 13 pounds and 9 shillings for “the transport of Indian corn for the Indians from Gnadenhuetten to Bethlehem by Jacob Ehrenhardt.”
In the following months, it appears that Jacob’s farm became a supply depot for those keeping watch on the frontier. On May 8, 1756, Northampton County official Timothy Hosfield was asked “to deliver the 26 guns, blankets for the soldiers, powder hors, wine, spirits, mild biscuits, tea, cheese, sugar, and gingerbread that were stored at his house to Jacob Ehrenhart who was, under directions from the governor, to deliver them to Harris’ Ferry.” He also excepted “the fine blankets and traveling kitchen belonging to Mr. Franklin.”
Jacob’s wartime efforts must have been noticed by the officials of Northampton County because they appointed him one of the overseers of the poor in Salisbury Township on March 25, 1758. (22)
During the 1750s, Jacob continued to increase his property holdings. He acquired 200 acres from Martin Bamberger on Sept 9, 1753. On June 17, 1754, he received a warrant for 25 acres. And on Nov. 3, 1755, John Wetzel assigned his rights to 25 acres to Jacob. (23)
Jacob’s land transactions provide a few tidbits of information that aren’t mentioned in Moravian records. Several deeds identify him as a “Black smith.” Since smithing was a trade that required intense training, it’s likely that he became a smith before leaving Germany. Another deed indicates that Jacob had a grist mill on his property. This deed, written by the executors of Jacob’s estate in 1762, involved 83½ acres that contained a “messuage, tenement, gristmill” on Little Lehigh Creek. The presence of a mill is confirmed in a Dec. 16, 1760, report on a proposal to build a road from “Maccooshy” to Nazareth. A map accompanying the report includes “Jac. Ehrenhardt’s mill.” (24)
As the 1750s drew to a close, Jacob made his most memorable contribution to the Moravian community – one that would mark his as one of the two “Fathers of Emmaus.”
In 1759, Moravian leaders decided to establish a village in Salisbury Township. “Ever mindful of the growing importance of Salisbury among their rural missions the authorities in Bethlehem now began to plan for a more permanent settlement, a Gemein-Ort, or closed congregational village in which residents of kindred spiritual needs and desires could live and work together harmoniously,” according to “They Came to Emmaus.” (25)
Again, key movers in this initiative were Jacob Ehrenhardt and Sebastian Knauss, who together provided more than 100 acres for the village. On May 1, 1759, Sebastian Knauss sold 45 acres, 25 perches, in Salisbury Township to leaders of the Moravian church for 50 pounds. Three days later Jacob Ehrenhardt sold them 55 acres of adjoining land for 30 pounds. The author of “They Came to Emmaus” characterizes the transaction as a donation, based on references in Moravian records to “the land which Jacob Ehrenhardt and Sebastian Knauss are giving in addition for the Gemain-dort.” (26)
Jacob’s plot “is approximately that part of Emmaus bounded on the North by Green St. (and a small triangle north and between Third and Fourth Sts.); on the West by an oblique line (now partly Fourth St. and the west side of the Triangle); on the South by a line some hundreds of feet south of Adrain St.; and on the East by Second St.,” according to “They Came to Emmaus.” (27)
Since it was a settlement open only to Moravians, the congregation established a set of regulations for inhabitants. These encouraged Christian ideals and banned criminal and uncouth behavior. For example: “All fraud and overreaching of one’s neighbor; likewise any premeditated mischief done to the wood, fences, fields, fruit trees, etc., belonging to the owner of the soil or any other, shall be deemed infamous; as generally all other gross heathenish sins, to wit: gluttony and drunkenness, cursing and swearing, lieing and cheating, pilfering and stealing, quarreling and fighting, shall not be heard of in Emmaus; he that is guilty of such cannot be suffered to continue here.” They also frowned on pastimes that would seem relatively benign in most other communities. For example: “No dancing matches, tippling in taverns (except for the necessary entertainment of strangers and travelers), beer tappings, feastings at weddings, christenings, or burials, common sports and pastimes, gaming with cards, dice, etc. (nor the playing of the children in the streets), shall be so much as heard of among the inhabitants. They whose inclination is that way bent, cannot live in Emmaus.” Sebastian Knauss was one of the four subscribers to these regulations.
The village didn’t receive its current name until 1761, “when at a lovefeast on April 3rd, conducted by Bishop Spangenberg, it was announced that the place hitherto called Maguntschi and Salzburg was now to be called by the Scriptural name of Emmaus,” according to “The Emaus Moravian Congregation.” (28)
In addition to organizing and controlling many aspects of village life, church officials kept records of most activities. Most entries concerning Jacob revolve around the effort to establish the new village. But the community diary also mentions a couple of joyful events. On Jan. 17, 1758, the diary notes: “Early this morning Br. Jacob Ehrenhardt came and brought the news that the dear Lord last night did happily deliver his wife of a daughter. He requested baptism, about which I wrote to Br. Peter (Boehler).” And on April 12: “Jacob Ehrenhardt celebrated his birthday by giving a lovefeast for the new confirmants of the church.” (29)
However, the diary also follows Jacob’s sudden illness, death and funeral in February 1760.
“February 7. – Went early to Br. Ehrenhardt, who was very weak, but remained, with all his pain, mentally clear to the last hour. He died in the bosom of Jesus at 6:30 p.m.
“February 10. – Br. Petrus (Bishop Peter Boehler) arrived early from Bethlehem to conduct the service. With him came the Brethren Gottlieb (Pezold), Horsfield, Edmonds, and Horn and of the Sisters Klein, Huss, Schueling, Peterman and Cath. Ehrenhart, whom Br. Hasse brought in the small carriage.
“Toward 10 o’clock, brethren and friends and strangers gathered in Ehrenhardt’s house. At 11 o’clock the body was taken to the church where Brother Petrus (Bishop Peter Boehler) preached the sermon to an audience of 400, crowding at doors and windows, but all remained very quiet and attentive. The text of the funeral sermon was from Rev. 14:13: Blessed are the dead which died in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, said the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors; and their works do follow them. – After the sermon his body was brought to its last resting place where Br. Peter conducted the Liturgy. Then the many went home, but the Brethren held a lovefeast at which Br. Peter gave a sketch of Jacob Ehrenhardt’s life. But before the lovefeast Br. Peter had assembled the family of the deceased and gave them words of comfort.”
Jacob’s obituary provides more details on his illness. “Early on January 30 (1760) he complained of a headache and pangs in his chest, whereupon he said to his wife Barbara, that he was going to be ill. He became feverish and suffered great thirst. Daily he grew weaker.
“Many of the Brethren took turns to watch over him, and spared neither medicine nor attention. Since he had endured much worse illness in the past, he thought it no reason for “going home,” but at last, growing weaker and weaker, he several days ago took warm and affectionate leave of the members of his family. Early on the morning of the 7th of February it became very evident that he would soon be passing over into the arms of the Bleeding Bridegroom. He expressed no further wishes but to have them sing him a hymn, during which he now folded his hands, now lifted them, pleading fervently to be released as a poor sinner, and begged all those who had attended him for forgiveness of sins. His mind remained clear up to the last quarter hour. He departed at half past seven in the evening.” (31)
The obituary provides a fitting epitaph: “Jacob Ehrenhardt was a forthright man of integrity; his heart was attached to the Saviour, ever ready to serve his own Brethren and his neighbors, who all held him dear.”
Jacob’s namesake son was born on Sept. 19, six months after his father’s death.
Jacob’s widow, Barbara, appears in both church and civil records after his death.
Two months after Jacob’s death, the Emmaus diary records: “April 17. – Widow Ehrenhardt and her children moved into their house near the Gemeinhaus. We visited them and sang for them some verses of blessings upon their entrance into the new home.”
A few months later, one of the children was injured. “July 15. – Elizabeth Ehrenhardt, which reaping in the harvest field, climbed the fence, fell down and suffered bodily injuries.” (32)
In 1761, Widow Ehrenhard was taxed for property in Salisbury Township. Jacob heirs sold off his properties in 1762. However, Barbara appears to have held some property until at least 1766, when the Emmaus diary notes that the pastor “visited the brethren who were cutting Widow Ehrenhardt’s rye.” (33)
Barbara died Sept. 8, 1777. A month later, her house was used as a hospital for wounded soldiers of the Continental Army. (34)
(1) Jacob’s birth dates and parents are mentioned in his obituary, which appears in the records of the Moravian church in Emmaus, Pa. This is available at “Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records,” at Ancestry.com (in German script). An English translation appears in the book “They Came to Emmaus,” compiled by Preston A. Barba, Lehigh Litho, Inc. Bethlehem, Pa., 1960. Jacob’s birthplace was probably the town of Moersstadt, which is a few miles northwest of the city of Worms. The obituary says Jacob was born in “Maerstadt near Worms” and baptized as a Lutheran in Dalsheim. There’s no Maerstadt near Worms, but Moerstadt is not only near Worms but it is also very close to Dalsheim, where Jacob was baptized. Moerstadt would have been a small village served by the parish in Dalsheim. (2) Barbara’s birth information appears in the Lutheran church records from Hassloch, about 15 miles southwest of Mannheim, Germany. These are available in the original German script at “Germany, Lutheran Baptisms, Marriages, and Burial,” at Ancestry.com. The baptismal record lists her name as Anna Barbara. She is also listed as Anna Barbara in Rudolph’s will – listed under Rudolph Andrews in Philadelphia County, Pa., Will Book J, page 205. Many sources rely on Barbara’s obituary in Moravian church records from Emmaus. However, there appear to be flaws in this record. It lists her name as Maria Barbara, say she was born March 18, 1722, spells her maiden name as Andres and says she was born in the town of Boehn near Mannheim in the Palatinate. The town of Boehl is just northeast of Hassloch, so it’s likely this was indented. [The obituary lists her name as Barbara Ehrnhardtin because Germans usually added an “in” to the end of surnames to indicate someone was female.] (3) Information on the children appears in the baptismal and death records of the Moravian church in Emmaus, Pa. This is available at “Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records,” at Ancestry.com (in German script). The birth date of the first son named Johannes is uncertain. A translation of Emmaus’ burial records says he was born “1/18/1750.” However, the original German record doesn’t say that. It seems likely that the translator was confused by the record of the birth of the second Johannes on Oct. 18, 1750. The baptism of the first Johannes doesn’t seem to be recorded in the Emmaus records, which could point toward a birth in 1741, after the couple were married in 1740 but before they joined the Moravian church in 1742. The husbands of the daughters are listed in “Pennsylvania, U.S., Compiled Marriage Records, 1700-1821,” at Ancestry.com. They are based on records of the Moravian churches in Emmaus and in Bethlehem. (4) “Pennsylvania German Pioneers,” Vol. 2, by Ralph B. Strassburger, edited by William J. Hinke, contains facsimiles of the passengers’ signatures and marks. On pages 213 and 216, it’s apparent that both names were signed in the same hand and that there’s an “h” in the second signature that doesn’t seem to appear in the first. However, it seems the “h” is hidden under the “E” in the first signature. Whether the names ends if “t” or “dt” is open to debate. The script looks like a contraction of “dt,” but the transcribers opted for just “t.” (5) The passenger lists appear in “Pennsylvania German Pioneers,” Vol. 1, by Ralph B. Strassburger, edited by William J. Hinke, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1980, pages 206 and 207. (6) An image of the warrant appears in “Pennsylvania, U.S., Land Warrants and Applications, 1733-1952,” Ancestry.com. The 1740 warrant was for 128 acres, but the amount of land was corrected to 125 in 1742. Jacob received a patent for this land on Sept. 11, 1747, according to Pennsylvania Patent Book A, No. 12, page 546. (7) The location of Jacob’s property is mentioned in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 23. (8) Rudolph Andrews received a warrant for 100 acres on a branch of Lehigh Creek on Nov. 23, 1736. See “Pennsylvania, Land Warrants and Applications,” at Ancestry.com. (9) Rudolph Andreas arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Thistle of Glasgow was qualified on Aug. 29, 1730. See “Pennsylvania German Pioneer,” Vol. 1, page 31. Interestingly, at least two other ancestors of the Bowers family were also board the Thistle of Glasgow – Abraham Transue and Jeremias Hess. (10) The passage from the obituary appears in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 252-253. (11) Zinzendorf’s visit is mentioned in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 23-24, citing the Emmaus congregation’s church book. The location of the house is mentioned on page 80. Much of the information concerning the foundation of the Moravian community in Emmaus is also available in “The Emaus Moravian Congregation,” by Rev. Allen E. Abel, in Proceedings and Papers Read Before the Lehigh County Historical Society, Vol. II, Allentown, Pa., 1910, page 47. (12) The building of the church is mentioned in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 25, citing the church records. (13) Jacob’s entry into the Moravian church is mentioned in “The Bethlehem Diary,” Vol. 1, 1742-1744, translated and edited by Kenneth G. Hamilton, Archives of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pa., page 131. (14) The school is discussed in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 26-28. (15) The worship service establishing the Macungie congregation is described in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 35-38. (16) The passage from the obituary appears in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 253. (17) The second naturalization appears in “Persons Naturalized in the Province of Pennsylvania, 1740-1773,” by John B. Linn, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1967, page 38. (18) The guardianship appears in “Genealogical Abstracts of Orphans Court Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, Volumes A-E, 1752-1795,” by Candance E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 1998, pages 2 and 3. (19) “Early Moravian Education in Pennsylvania,” by Mabel Haller, Moravian Historical Society, Nazareth, Pa., 1953, pages 158-159. (20) The Moravian reaction to the events of the French and Indian War are examined in “The Moravians during the French and Indian War,” by Glenn Weaver, Church History, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep., 1955), pages 243-246. (21) Jacob’s participation is mentioned in “Abstracts of Public Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania (and surrounding counties) 1727-1779,” Vol. 1, by Candace E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 2001, pages 38, 199 and 201. (22) Jacob’s appointment to be an overseer of the poor is mentioned in “Proceedings and Papers Read Before the Lehigh County Historical Society,” Vol. II, Allentown, Pa., 1910, page 70. (23) These transactions are mentioned in the history of two deeds from 1762. They appear in “Abstracts of Deeds and Other Property Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania,” vol. 5, by Candance E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 2006, pages 8-9. (24) The property with the mill is mentioned in “Abstracts of Deeds and Other Property Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania,” vol. 5, by Candance E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 2006, pages 8-9. The road report appears in “Abstracts of Public Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania (and surrounding counties) 1727-1779,” Vol. 1, by Candace E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 2001, page 111. (25) The foundation of Emmaus is described in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 48-49. (26) The deeds involving the land for Emmaus are in Northampton County Deed Book B-3, pages 178 and 180. (27) “They Came to Emmaus,” page 53. (28) “The Emaus Moravian Congregation,” by the Rev. Allen E. Abel, in “Proceedings and Papers Read Before the Lehigh County Historical Society,” Vol. II, Allentown, Pa., 1910, page 47-53. (29) The 1758 diary entries appear in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 57. (30) The diary entries covering Jacob’s death appear in “They Came to Emmaus,” pages 60-61. (31) Jacob’s obituary is translated in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 252-253. (32) The diary entries appear in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 61. (33) The tax list appears in “Abstracts of Public Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania (and surrounding counties) 1727-1779,” Vol. 1, by Candace E. Anderson, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa., 2001, page 124. The diary entry appears in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 102. (34) Barbara’s death is mentioned in the records of the Emmaus Moravian Church, available at Ancestry.com. The use of her former home as a hospital appears in “They Came to Emmaus,” page 118.