Updated December 2020
See Thomas McDaniel
ISAAC and MARY FREDERICK
Isaac Frederick immigrated to America during the early 1700s. (1)
Married a woman named Mary. (2)
Barbara Frederick. Married Jacob Baer.
Mary Frederick. Married Henry Wagner.
Ann Frederick. Married Thomas Snaveley.
Isaac may have originated near Zurich, Switzerland, where his daughter Barbara is said to have married Jacob Baer around 1700. (4)
Isaac immigrated to American sometime before 1717, when he starts appearing in the records of Chester County, Pa. Isaac ffredrick had 250 acres surveyed on May 16, 1717, in the London Company Tract on Conostogoe. (5) This survey probably covered the 250 acres that Isaac purchased from the London Company on Feb. 20, 1718. (6)
Chester County’s Conestoga Township was established in 1718 and officials compiled its first list of taxable residents in that year. Isaac ffrederick & Son are listed among the “Dutch Inhabitants.” The townships population consisted primarily of German immigrants – often referred to as “Dutch” by the English. Most were Mennonites who had arrived in America over the preceding 10 years. It’s possible that Isaac was a member of that denominaation since his daughter Barbara married into a Mennonite family.
The 1883 “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania” describes the early settlements. “During this period settlers, as soon as they arrived at Philadelphia, hurried forward to the forests along Conestoga, Pequea, Beaver, and Mill Creeks, where the earliest settlers located, and each commenced to battle with the forests and clear a small piece of land for cultivation. The German settlers invariably followed the streams, large and small. It was always a struggle with the pioneers of these settlements to build homes and secure subsistence. One of the first things they did was erect along these streams at convenient distances grist- and saw-mills, and occasionally we find a fulling-mill, an oil-mill, and hemp-mill. All was peace and quiet, and every one was earnestly engaged in securing a comfortable home.” (7)
Isaac was one of those who built and operated a mill. His estate papers indicate that he owned “A Mill and Mill house” on “Mill Creek at Conestogoe.” Today, the property is the site of the Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society, which is on Route 30 a few miles southeast of the city of Lancaster in what is now East Lampeter Township.
The 1883 “History of Lancaster County” provides a brief description of the property, though some of the facts are a bit jumbled. “In 1719, Joseph Boughwalter, a Palatine, received a patent from the proprietaries, the sons of Penn, for one hundred and fifty acres of land lying on a branch of the Conestoga, in the county of Chester, province of Pennsylvania. This land lay upon what is now Mill Creek, township of East Lampeter. The deed for this tract seems originally to have been taken by Isaac Hendrich, who, we suppose, resigned his claim to Joseph Boughwalter. Joseph evidently built the mill, as in the deed granted by him and Barbara, his wife, to their son, Abraham Buckwalter, the mill property and water right are mentioned.” The account later mentions this was a grist mill. (8) The words “seems,” “we suppose” and “evidently,” indicate some uncertainty that is cleared up in a 1726 deed recording a transaction between the heirs of Isaac Fredrich (not Hendrich) to Joseph Boughwalder. On May 11, 1726, Mary Fredrick, widow of Isaac Fredrick, and the children sold 150 acres of land to Joseph Boughwalder for 147 pounds. The deed states that this parcel was part of the 250 acres Isaac had purchased from the London Company in 1718. It seems likely that Boughwalter acquired Isaac’s mill along with this portion of the property.
On the 1719 and 1720/21 tax rolls, Isaac and his unnamed son are again listed. The son – John – is finally mentioned by name in Conestoga tax rolls in 1721, the year of his father’s death.
Isaac died before Oct. 21, 1721, when an inventory of his estate was compiled. On Nov. 31, John Frederick – listed as Jno ffrederick – was appointed as the lead administrator of his estate. (9)
The inventory indicates Isaac owned a “house and Plantation” as well and the mill and mill hosue. He also owned at least four horses, six cattle and two beehives. In addition to a gun, various tools and household implements, he owned “one bible and Sundry books” – unusual on the frontier.
Finally, Isaac’s impact on the community might be determined by a line item for “Sundry Debts due to Estate,” totaling 9 pounds. In addition, the business continued to be known as “Isaac Frederick’s mill” for a few years after this death. An account of evangelists from the Seventh Day Baptists mentions a stop at the site in 1724. (10)
(1) Isaac Frederick is identified as a “Dutch Inhabitant” in Chester County’s tax lists from 1718. In that era, “Dutch” would have referred to anyone of Germanic origins. The tax lists mentioned here and elsewhere appear in “Assessment Lists and Other Documents of Lancaster County Prior to the Year 1729,” paper read before the Lancaster County Historical Society by H. Frank Eschleman, in “Historical Papers and Addresses of the Lancaster County Historical Society, Volumes 20-21,” by the Lancaster County Historical Society, 1916; vol. 20, pages 163, 165 and 168. “Tax transcripts 1715-1753,” Chester County, Pa., at FamilySearch.org. Images of original tax records. (2) Mary Fredrick is identified as the widow and relict of Isaac Fredrick in a deed recording the sale of Isaac’s property after his death. The deed was written on May 11, 1726, but not recorded until July 13, 1966, in Lancaster County Deed Book W55, page 1076. The land was in Chester County at the time of the sale, but it was included in Lancaster County when that county was formed. It should be noted that one early record mentions a “Veronica, wife of Isaac Frederick,” but the woman involved was actually the wife of Isaac’s son John. This appears in “Chronicon Ephratense: A History of the Community of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” by Brother Lamech; S.H. Zahm & Company, 1889, pages 24-26. (3) Isaac’s children and the husband’s of his daughters are mentioned in the 1726 deed. (4) Researchers for the Bear family state that Barbara Frederick married Jacob Baer about 1700. Jacob was baptized March 18, 1676/7 in Hausen Parish, in Zurich Canton, Switzerland. He is then found in Horgen in the same canton in the 1709 census. If this is correct, it seems that Barbara and Jacob were married somewhere near Zurich, a good indication that her father Isaac also lived there. The Bear family information appears in “Martin Shellabarger, 1817-1894, Descendants-Antecedents, Allied Lines,” by Carmen M. Bussard, 1994, page 129, and also in “Bear Saga Update: Part Two,” by Jane Evans Best, Pennsylvania Mennonite Heritage, Vol. 21, No. 4, October 1998, page 17, and in other articles by the same author in the same magazine. (5) The survey is referred to in “Martin Shellabarger, 1817-1894,” page 134. This refers to “A mouse eaten manuscript which was titled, Supplement to the Account of the Survey Lands In the County of Chester Taken Up Since the Year 1710.” I have been unable to check this source. (6) The 1718 purchase in mentioned in the 1726 deed in Lancaster County Deed Book W55, page 1076. (7) The early days of Lancaster County are described in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men,” by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, Philadelphia, 1883, page 19. (8) The mill is mentioned in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” page 899. (9) The estate papers appear in “Chester County, Pennsylvania, Estate Papers, 1714-1838,” available at Ancestry.com. (10) The stop at the mill followed the baptism of “Isaac Frederick’s wife Veronica,” who was actually John’s wife. “Chronicon Ephratense: A History of the Community of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” by Brother Lamech; S.H. Zahm & Company, 1889, pages 24-26.
JOHN and FRONEY FREDERICK
John Frederick was born in the late 1600s to Isaac and Mary Frederick. (1)
Married a woman usually referred to as Froney, a nickname for Veronica. They probably married in 1721 or 1722, in what is now Lancaster County, Pa. (2)
Abraham Frederick, July 11, 1723.
Maria Frederick, born Dec. 13, 1725. Married George Boroway.
Rachel Frederick, born April 30, 1730. Married Frederick Stohler.
John’s parents immigrated to American before 1718 and settled in what is now Lancaster County. At the time, the area was part of Chester County. (4)
The earliest tax roll of Chester County’s Conestoga Township lists “Isaac Frederick & Son” among the “Dutch Inhabitants.” The lists for 1719 and 1720/21 are similar, though the surname is spelled Fretherick on the last list. It seems likely that the father and son were listed together in this manner because they ran a mill together. (5)
Isaac Frederick died in 1721 and John was named an administrator of his estate, which included a mill on Mill Creek in what is now East Lampeter Township. (6) Interestingly, John didn’t sign the estate papers but made a mark – a “JF” that looks more like an “IF.” This is often an indication of illiteracy, but doesn’t seem to have been the case here. When his family sold a portion of his father’s property in 1726, he signed the document “Hanss Fredrick” in German script. The family seems to have appreciated education since the inventory of Isaac’s estate lists a Bible and several other books.
In 1721, John makes his first appearance by name in the tax records of Conestoga Township. John Frederick is listed among those “omitted.” However, based on the amount he was taxed, it seems likely that he should have appeared under the heading for “freeman,” which would indicate he was not yet married.
John and Froney probably married in late 1721 or early 1722. John moves from the “freeman” section of the tax lists to the standard portion in 1722, which indicates a wedding sometime before the date the lists were compiled. In addition, their son Abraham was born in July 1723 in the “Conestoga region of Pa.”
The year after Abraham was born, Froney became involved in the Seventh Day Baptists. This group of German pietists is best known for establishing the Cloisters in Ephrata, which was founded by Conrad Beissel in 1732. The Cloisters was a religious community where celibate men and women lived in separate dormitories and led austere lives. In addition to these brothers and sisters, married couples who shared the community’s beliefs lived in the surrounding countryside and provided essential support. It seems most likely that the Fredericks were one of these families, though there is an indication that Froney might have spent some time living in the actual Cloisters.
The “Chronicon Ephratense,” a history compiled by Brother Lamech of the Cloisters, describes an evangelistic foray into the Conestoga area in November 1724. This effort saw the conversion of several people, including Froney. (7)
“A meeting was held at [Henry] Hohn’s on the following day, November 12th, at which the Superintendent was present[;] at this meeting extraordinary revival-powers were manifested. The Baptists spoke with such power concerning baptism and the divine purpose concerning fallen man involved therein, that after the close of the meeting five persons applied for baptism, namely, the afore-mentioned Hohn, his house-mate, John Mayer and his house-mate, and Joseph Shafer, who were at once baptized in Apostolic-wise, by Peter Becker, in the Pequea stream. Soon a sixth one followed these, namely, Veronica, the wife of Isaac Frederick.”
Apparently, Froney’s baptism was so moving that it affected one of the evangelists. Up to this point, Conrad Beissel – identified here as “the Superintendent” – had been too proud to undergo adult baptism. “Suddenly, however, his heart was enlightened by a bright ray from the Gospel. … Consequently, after the Sister referred to before came out of the water, he came down from his spiritual pride, humbled himself before his friend Peter Becker, and was baptized by him on the same day in Apostolic-wise, under the water. …
“After the baptism they spent the rest of the day in edifying conversation unto the praise of God, until evening, when a love-feast was held at Hohn’s, the first ever held in Conestoga since the country began to be cleansed from its heathenish inhabitants; it was held on November 12th, 1724. The following day they made a visit to Isaac Frederick’s mill, when disagreement sprang up among them, because some so vehemently insisted on returning home.”
Although the baptized woman is identified as “Veronica the wife of Isaac Frederick,” she was actually John’s wife Froney. A 1726 deed indicates that Isaac’s widow was named Mary – not Veronica or the nickname Froney. It’s very likely that the Baptists called her “Isaac Frederick’s wife” because the mill was still closely associated with Isaac even though it was operated by his son John.
Three of the Fredericks’ children were also connected with Cloisters. Maria’s death record states: “Her mother became a Baptist at Ephrata, and Maria was baptized by them in 1744.” And Rachel’s death record says: “She moved with her mother to Ephrata.” This seems to indicate that Froney actually lived in the Cloisters for a time – presumably without John since he’s not mentioned. Jacob also joined the Ephrata community, where the death of “Br. Jacob Friedrich” is listed in 1773. This entry also notes that Jacob’s mother had been “forgotten” on the list of members. (8) Although Jacob remained affiliated with the community until he died, Rachel became a Moravian in 1759 and Maria followed her in 1772. They followed their elder brother Abraham, who had joined the Moravian denomination in 1744.
In 1726, John, his mother and sisters sold a portion of Isaac’s property. They sold 150 acres of the 250-acres tract to Joseph Boughwalder for 147 pounds. Since Boughwalder later operated a mill on the site, it seems likely that this portion of the property included Isaac’s mill. (9)
John continues to appear on the Chester County tax lists until Conestoga Township became at part of the newly created Lancaster County in 1729.
On Oct. 14, 1729, the Pennsylvania General Assembly approved an act that permitted the naturalization of Germans who had immigrated between 1700 and 1718 and purchased land in Lancaster County. John Frederick is listed among the dozens of landowners who became subjects of the British crown by way of the act. (10)
About a year later, John sold the remainder of his father’s property. An article in the magazine Pennsylvania Mennonite Heritage describes the transaction. “About 1730 (definitely by December 25, 1731) Hans [Hess] purchased 106 acres for his son Michael from John Fredericks in the London Company tract in Lampeter Township. It was the southern portion of a 257-acre tract originally issued to Isaac Fredericks. In his 1733 will Hans wrote that the 100 acres next to Buchwalter was to be sold to his son Michael for £30 and not for a higher price. Joseph Boughwalter/ Buchwalter had purchased the northern portion of Isaac Frederick’s tract.” (11)
Soon after this, the Frederick family moved to Warwick Township, north of the town of Lancaster. Judging from the date and location, it seems possible that the family moved to be somewhat closer to the Seven Day Baptist community when it was established at Ephrata in 1732.
By 1736, John seems to have gained enough prominence in his new community to be appointed a “viewer” when colonial officials decided to lay out the Paxton Road, which ran “from the Susquehanna River near the house of John Harris, in the township of Paxton, in the county of Lancaster, and from thence through the said county and part of the county of Chester.” John Frederick was living in Warwick Township at the time. (12)
On Dec. 22, 1739, John received a warrant from the proprietaries of Pennsylvania for 25 acres situated on a branch of the “Shickaselingo,” straddling the boundary of Donegal and Warwick townships. (13)
John appears to have resumed his career as a miller by 1740, if not earlier. Lancaster County court records from Nov. 4, 1740, describe a new road in Warwick Township that was to run into “Pexton Road & to John ffredricks Mill.” (14)
John continued to acquire land in the area. He received a warrant for 200 acres in nearby Rapho Township on May 11, 1744. It’s possible that John had claimed this property several years earlier since the warrant notes that quitrent and interest were to “commence from the 1st Day of March in ye Year 1737.” On Dec. 21, 1750, he received a warrant for another 100 acres “adjoining his other Land & George Hoake in Rapho Township.”
In 1751, Jno. Fredrick is listed in the tax records of Rapho Township, Lancaster County. In 1756, the tax records state that he owned 100 acres and three horned cattle. His son Jacob is listed among the “freemen,” indicating that he was at least 21 years old and unmarried. (15)
John died in early 1757. That year’s tax rolls lists “Jno. Fredricks Estate.” His will was proved on May 10, 1757. Since Froney is mentioned as his “loving Wife,” she was still alive when John wrote his will in 1753.
(1) John’s parents are identified in deed that was written on May 11, 1726, but not recorded until July 13, 1966, in Lancaster County Deed Book W55, page 1076. The land was in Chester County at the time of the sale, but it was included in Lancaster County when that county was formed in 1729. In addition, John was appointed the administrator of Isaac’s estate in 1721. Images of the estate papers appear at “Chester County, Pennsylvania, Estate Papers, 1714-1838,” available at Ancestry.com. (2) Froney is mentioned as John’s widow in his will in Lancaster County Will Book B, page 158. Images of the will are available at “Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records,1683-1993,” at Ancestry.com. However, there appears to be a glitch in the database that prevents searching for the will. It can be located by navigating to Will Book B and then finding the correct page. (3) The children are listed in John’s will. Abraham’s birth date is recorded at “The Moravian Graveyards of Lititz, Pa., 1744-1905,” by Abraham Reinke Beck, from Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, Vol. 7, Jan. 1, 1905, page 243. Maria and Rachel’s birth dates and husbands are listed in Moravian records in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, page 178. Their husbands’ surnames are spelled Burrowey and Stoter in the abstract of John’s will. (4) John was naturalized under an act of the General Assembly covering Germans who had immigrated between 1700 and 1718, according to “Authentic History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” by William L. Iscrupe and Shirley G.M. Iscrupe, pages 417-418. (5) The tax record appears in “Assessment Lists and Other Documents of Lancaster County Prior to the Year 1729,” by H. Frank Eschleman, Historical Papers and Addresses of the Lancaster County Historical Society, Vol. 20, 1916, page 173. Other mentions on the tax list appear on pages 185 and 188. (6) Isaac’s estate papers appear in “Chester County, Pennsylvania, Estate Papers,” at Ancestry.com. (7) “Chronicon Ephratense: A History of the Community of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” by Brother Lamech; S.H. Zahm & Company, 1889, pages 24-26. (8) The Fredericks’ religious lives are mentioned in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, pages 178 and 189. Jacob’s death is noted in “The Registers of the Ephrata Community,” by Julius F. Sachse, from The Pennsylvania Magazine Of History And Biography, Vol. 14, 1890, page 305. The list of deaths in the community in 1773 mentions Jacob’s mother and indicated that the two had been “forgotten” in the community’s full register of members. (9) The land sale appears in Lancaster County Deed Book W55, page 1076, as noted above. Joseph Boughwalter’s activities are mentioned in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men,” by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, Philadelphia, 1883, page 899. (10) As noted above, the naturalization appears in “Authentic History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” page 417-418. (11) The transaction involving Hans Hess appears in “Community and Material Culture Among Lancaster Mennonites: Hans Hess from 1717 to 1733,” by R. Martin Keen, Pennsylvania Mennonite Heritage, Vol. XIII, No. 1, January 1990, page 12. (12) The description of the road appears in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, with Biographical Sketches,” by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, Philadelphia, 1883, page 310. (13) The warrant records for 1739, 1744 and 1750 appear in “Pennsylvania, Land Warrants and Applications, 1733-1952,” at Ancestry.com. (14) The road is mentioned in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Quarter Sessions Abstracts (1729-1742), Book 1,”edited by Gary T. Hawbaker, page 100. (15) The Rapho Township tax records are available at “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania tax records, 1748-1855,” at FamilySearch.org.
ABRAHAM and ANNA ELISABETH FREDERICK
Abraham Frederick was born July 11, 1723, in what is now Lancaster County, Pa., to John and Froney Frederick. (1)
Married Anna Elisabeth Nussbaum, a widowed immigrant, in February 1744. She was born Sept. 27, 1719, to Philipp Trauhardt in Hornbach, Zweibruecken, Germany. (2)
Abraham Frederick, born Jan. 22, 1745.
Elizabeth Frederick, born Nov. 9, 1747. Married Jacob Ricksecker.
John Frederick, born Nov. 1, 1749.
Maria Frederick, born Oct. 28, 1751. Died before 1753.
Maria Frederick, born Sept. 11, 1753. Died August 1759.
Philip Frederick, born Sept. 26, 1755.
Peter Frederick, born Feb. 4, 1757.
Jacob Frederick, born March 9, 1759. Died April 1759.
Rachel Frederick, born March 9, 1759. Married John Ricksecker..
Anna Maria Frederick, born Nov. 28, 1760. Married John Miller.
Anna Rosina Frederick, born Jan. 17, 1763.
Barbara Frederick, born March 26, 1766. Died soon afterward.
Abraham was born in what is now East Lampeter Township, Lancaster County, and spent his early years there. Before he was 10, his parents moved a few miles north to Warwick Township. His father and grandfather were millers and Abraham followed that trade once he reached adulthood. He also worked as a carpenter. (4)
According to Moravian records, Abraham originally had no religious affiliation, but “was spiritually awakened and bapt(ized) by the Moravians in 1744.”
In that same year, Abraham also married Anna Elisabeth Nussbaum. Elisabeth was a young widow who had arrived from Germany the previous year. (5)
Elisabeth Dreyhardt was born near Zweibruecken in 1719 been baptized in a Reformed church in Mauschbach on Oct. 4, 1719, acording to Moravian records. German records reveal that her surname was probably spelled Trauhardt and her father was named Philipp Trauhardt. (6)
Elisabeth’s first husband was Benedict Nussbaum – though he is identified as Benjamin Nussbaum in Moravian records. The couple married in Contwig, near Zweibruecken, on Oct. 27, 1739. They had two daughters: Catharine Elisabetha, born Sept. 17, 1740, and Anna Margret, born March 2, 1742.
In mid-1743, the Nussbaum family boarded the Phoenix in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to sail to America. The ship made a stop in Cowes, England, before crossing the Atlantic. Moravian records indicate that the two young girls died during the voyage. The Phoenix arrived in Philadelphia on Sept. 30, 1743, when Benedict Nussbaum took an oath before colonial officials. The passenger list also includes a Johannes Nussbaum, who might have been a relative of Benedict’s. (7)
It seems likely that the Nussbaums settled in northern Lancaster County. But within only a few months, Benedict died. Less than six months after arriving in America, Elisabeth married Abraham Frederick.
On May 26, 1749, Abraham and Elisabeth were accepted into the Moravian church during Donegal congregation day in Bethlehem. They were first admitted to communion on March 12, 1750, in Lebanon. (8) For the next few decades, the Fredericks – usually spelled Friedrich in German-language documents – appear in the church’s records, either having their children baptized or serving as the sponsors of other couples’ children.
The couple appears to have settled in Donegal Township, Lancaster County, soon after they wed. Abraham fetrick appears on the township’s tax list for 1751. Some from of his name appears on Donegal’s rolls until the formation of Mount Joy in 1759, when he moved to the new township’s rolls. (9)
Most of the tax lists don’t supply much information other than the amount he was taxed. However, a few provide interesting details. In 1756, Abraham owned 50 acres of land, two horses, two cows and two sheep. In 1759, Mount Joy Township’s first tax list indicates that his farm had grown to 100 acres, with 24 acres cleared and 7 acres sown in corn. He also owned two horses and four horned cattle. In 1770, he was taxed for 100 acres, 50 of which were cleared, as well as a grist mill and a sawmill. He also owned four horses, four cows and eight sheep.
The Pennsylvania Archives transcription of the 1771 list says: “Frederick, Abra. 2 m.s.” The “2 m” would seem to indicate that he operated two mills, which would match the 1770 list. However, the Pennsylvania Archives doesn’t offer a meaning for the “s” in the list. It states that the meanings of many of the abbreviations have been lost. However, another source might offer a clue. “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” from 1883, notes that Abraham owned a still. In its account of Mount Joy Township, the history says: “The tax return of 1780 shows that next to farming the most common occupation was distilling. No less than six stills were reported in the township, the owners being John Bishop, Abraham Frederick, Abram Hear (Hare), Christian Hear (Hare), John Lynch, and Jacob Peters.” (10)
The 1772 tax roll lists an assessment for “Fredrick Abraham & Son John,” which might indicate that John was helping his father run the mill.
In 1773, abraham fredrick was taxed for 200 acres, 70 of which were cleared, and a grist mill. He also owned four horses, five cattle and six sheep. This sudden increase in wealth seems to have been a temporary condition linked to some event in the extended family. It seems that Abraham’s brother Jacob either moved away or died in 1772 between the collection of the “fifteen eighteen-penny tax” and the county assessment. He is listed in nearby Rapho Township on the former list but not the latter. In any case, Jacob’s property in Rapho Township appears to have been combined with Abraham’s when computing the 1773 assessment. Since Abraham’s taxable possessions drop back to their usual numbers in 1777, it seems likely that he sold the land on behalf of Jacob or his heirs.
The 1772 and 1773 rolls also seem to indicate that Abraham and some standing in the community. His name appears below that of the tax collector at the end of both lists.
As discontent with English rule smoldered, Lancaster County prepared for trouble. On Dec. 15, 1774, Abraham was elected to represent Mount Joy Township on Lancaster County’s Committee of Observation. (11) In its account of Mount Joy, “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania” describes events at the start of the Revolution and the committee’s duties. “Here, as elsewhere in the county, the people were divided in regard to the sentiments they entertained toward the support of independence. Many of those loyal to the American cause and active in its advocacy and enforcement became Associators, and those who refused to take part in the opposition to Great Britain were Non-Associators. The men selected in this township for the county committee of observation, to ascertain and report upon the conduct of all persons touching the general association which had been formed in Philadelphia, were James Cunningham and Abraham Frederick.” (12)
However, the Moravian Church was a pacifist denomination and this presented some problems for at least one member of the family. Abraham’s son Philip was fined for refusing to join the militia in 1777. He appears on a list of “the Non-Associators of 1777, who were uniformly assessed for the prosecution of the war, in which they refused to take part, the sum of £3 10s.” (13) I do not know whether Abraham was still on the Lancaster County Committee of Observation at this point.
The Moravians experienced additional hardship at the hands of Lancaster County patriots. An article on the Journal of the American Revolution website describes friction that arose between local authorities and the members of this peace church. (14)
“The most morally questionable actions of the militia, under the direction of County Lieutenants, was the persistent harassment of Moravian communities. Though supported by Congress, Moravians were a target by local authorities because, as per their religious beliefs, they were pacifists and refused to serve. In addition to their stance of neutrality, many refused to take the Oath of Allegiance, feeling that doing so would go against their religious contracts. … The Moravians, as a result this attitude, suffered horrible abuses.
“These persecutions were not carried out by the militia alone; the Committees of Observation and Inspection in Northampton and Lancaster levied ridiculous fines on the Moravian communities. Some had their peaceful homes turned into war hospitals and others into prisons for Hessians captured during the New Jersey and Philadelphia campaigns. The enforcement of these measures were carried out by the local militia, however — again at the behest of the County Lieutenants.
“While usually acting under the guidance of County officials, sometimes the militia took matters into their own hands. In one such troubling incident, after the Moravians of Lititz in Lancaster County had all their firearms confiscated by the local County government, a group of local militia arrived armed and equipped. After several names were read aloud, 14 Moravian men were systematically rounded up and taken away from their families — right in the middle of a day. They were held under guard in the militia Captain’s house and then taken to jail, paraded through town as people shouted slurs and insults at them. After a day or so, the men were released by the Committee of Observation because they had not given any order to detain them. This act was committed by what many consider today to be ‘patriot militiamen’.”
It seems very likely that at least Philip was among the targeted Moravians.
Whether because of a change in heart or because of persecution, Philip’s pacifism doesn’t seem to have lasted. In 1781, he appears on the muster rolls of Capt. Thomas Robinson’s company, along with his brothers Peter and John, who had both been members of the unit since at least 1778. (15)
Capt. Robinson’s unit does not appear to have been called to active duty during the time covered by the muster rolls in the Pennsylvania Archives. However, Abraham and Anna Elizabeth’s son Abraham did join a unit that saw some fighting. His mother’s death notice states: “Her oldest son, Abraham, lost his life in the Revolutionary War.”
In 1782, the elder Abraham’s name begins appearing on the Capt. Robinson’s muster rolls. Abraham Frederick is listed as an “Almoner” on rolls for Oct. 7, 1782, and April 21, 1783, and for the year 1782 in general. Few – if any – other companies had an almoner so I’m not certain exactly what his role was. It’s very likely that his job involved distributing alms to needy members, similar to an almoner in a church of the time. (16)
During the late 1770s, Abraham’s sons started establishing their own households. In the 1779 tax records, John and Peter are listed under Rapho Township, which adjoined Mount Joy Township. However, in 1782, Philip and Peter are listed back in Mount Joy, with neither owning any property. It seems possible that some sort of economic difficulty forced them to move back to the family farm.
Abraham probably retired in 1785. In that year, he drops from the tax records while John suddenly acquires 100 acres of land in Mount Joy Township, probably his father’s property. In 1786, Abraham is listed as an “inmate” in Warwick Township, probably living with his son Philip. Philip was taxed for 60 acres of land and two mills, one of which is referred to as “Lititz Mill.” (17)
By January 1787, when Abraham wrote his will, the Fredericks had moved into a house in the Moravian village of Lititz.
Abraham died Oct. 16, 1788. When he wrote his will, he said he was “in Health of Bodye” so he does not appear to have been feeble at the time. (18)
In his will, Abraham stipulated that “my loving Wife Elizabeth shall have the one Ent of dwelling house and the Kitchen which we have in possession now in the Village of Lititz which stands upon the Lot of Ground Number 42, and also half of the garden.” The other half of the property was given to Rachel and her husband John Ricksecker. Rachel and John were to receive the entire property after Elizabeth’s death. Abraham also bequeathed funds to the three surviving daughters of his son Abraham, who had died in the Revolution.
Anna Elizabeth died Jan. 7, 1804.
The Fredericks are buried at the Moravian Church in Lititz. Abraham’s tombstone, which is set into the ground near a tree has been rubbed smooth. It can be identified only because its specific location is cited in an account of the cemetery.
(1) Abraham’s parents are listed in his father’s will, an abstract of which can be found at “Will Abstracts 1721-1819: Lancaster Co, Pa.,” at USGenWeb Archives. His birth date, approximate birthplace and occupations are among the information contained in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, page 189. His birth date is also recorded at “The Moravian Graveyards of Lititz, Pa., 1744-1905,” by Abraham Reinke Beck, from Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, Volume 7, Jan. 1, 1905, page 243. This source says he was born in Donegal Township, but this is incorrect. He was born in what is now East Lampeter Township. John Frederick’s movements can be followed through Lancaster County tax rolls, which are available at “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania tax records, 1748-1855,” at FamilySearch.org. (2) The Fredericks’ approximate wedding date, and Elisabeth’s birthplace, birth date and maiden name are among the information contained in the family register of the Moravian church in Donegal/Mount Joy, Lancaster County, Pa., as listed in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, page 189. The same information is provide in her death listing in “Moravian Graveyards of Lititz,” page 249, but is more general, stating that she was born in 1719 in Rhenish Bavaria Anna Elisabeth’s maiden name is spelled in various ways in Moravian records in America. Transcriptions list her as Dreyhart, Treihardt and Freihardt. Most of these sound similar in German. However, the record of her marriage to Benedict Nussbaum spells it Trauhardt, which would seem to be the most likely original spelling. This record appears in “Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Lutheran Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1556-1973,” which is available at Ancestry.com. (3) Frederick and Elizabeth’s children and their birth dates are listed in a record of the family associated with the Donegal/Mount Joy congregation of the Moravian Church, which is recorded at “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, Willow Bend Books, Westminster, Md., 2000, page 189. The book also contains the baptismal records of most of the children on pages 160-164. It should be noted that the family register lists the birth of a Johanna, the birth records reveal this was actually Johannes, or John. The deaths of the second Maria and Jacob are listed in the records of the Donegal church provided by the Moravian Archives in Bethlehem, Pa., to Beverly Robertson. The information appears in photocopies of “Register of Donegal Moravian Church in Mount Joy, Pennsylvania (ChReg 29).” (4) The information on Abraham’s occupation, religious life and marriage to Elisabeth are contained in the family register of the Donegal/Mount Joy Moravian church, page 189. (5) The information on her two children with Nussbaum comes from “Moravian Graveyards of Lititz,” page 249. (6) Her father’s name and the correct name of her husband appear in the record of her first marriage, which is listed in “Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Lutheran Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1556-1973.” The baptisms of her first two children also appear in the same source. According to “U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s,” at Ancestry.com, the family is also mentioned in “Eighteenth Century Emigrants from German-Speaking Lands to North America,” by Annette K. Burgert, Publications of the Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. 1: The Northern Kraichgau. 1983. 461p. Vol. 2: The Western Palatinate. 1985. 405p. (7) “Pennsylvania German Pioneers,” by Ralph B. Strassburger and William J. Hinke, Pennsylvania German Society, Norristown, Pa., 1934, page 346. (8) “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, pages 182 and 187. (9) The Lancaster County tax lists appear in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania tax records, 1748-1855,” at FamilySearch.org. The 1771-1782 lists also appear in Pennsylvania Archives, Series 3, Vol. 17, pages 121, 288, 356, 514 and 714. Records for 1783-1786 are available at “Pennsylvania, Tax and Exoneration, 1768-1801,” available at Ancestery.com. (10) Unfortunately, the Lancaster tax list for 1771 does not appear in the images on FamilySearch.org. The still information comes from “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men,” by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, Philadelphia, 1883, page 992. (11) “Commemoration of Lancaster County in the revolution at ‘Indian Rock’: Williamson Park, near ‘Rockford’, the home of General Edward Hand, M.D., Friday, P.M. September 20, CMMXII,” by the Lancaster County Historical Society, published 1912, and available at www.archive.org. (12) The account appears in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” page 991. (13) List of fines appears in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” page 991. (14) “The Darker Side of the Militia,” an article by Thomas Verenna in the Journal of the American Revolution, Feb. 26, 2014, available at allthingsliberty.com. (15) The militia muster rolls appear in the Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, Vol. VII, pages 196-197, 203-204, 208-209, 450-452, 685-687, 699-701, 723-724, 739-740, 756-757, 777 and 783-785. (16) The Almoner references appear in Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, vol. VII, pages 450, 739, 756 and 784. (17) The township tax record includes a second listing for a Philip Frederick who owned 100 acres. This situation continues for a number of tax lists, some of which say “Fridrich Phillip for the mill.” He appears to have been taxed for two separate properties. (18) “Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993,” at Ancestry.com.
PETER and EVA FREDERICK
Peter Frederick was born Feb. 4, 1757, in Lancaster County, Pa., to Abraham and Anna Elizabeth (Treithardt) Frederick. (1)
Married Eva Hoog, probably about 1779. (2)
John Frederick, born Sept. 30, 1780.
Caroline Elizabeth Frederick, born Jan. 9, 1781. Married John Blickensderfer.
Maria Rachel Frederick, born April 24, 1783. Married Henry Keller.
Louise Salome Frederick, born Sept. 17, 1785. Married Christian Blickensdoerfer.
Eva Catharine Frederick, born Dec. 11, 1787. Married Benjamin Herbach.
Peter Frederick, born Feb. 2, 1792.
Barbara Margaret Frederick, born about 1795. Married Benjamin Blickensderfer.
Susannah Amalia Frederick, born Oct. 31, 1805 (probably adopted or born to a second, unidentified wife of Peter’s). Married Jacob Romig Jr.
Peter grew up in Lancaster County, where his father was a miller in Mount Joy Township. His parents were members of the Donegal/Mount Joy congregation of the Moravian Church, where Peter was baptized.
Peter does not seem to have joined his parents’ church. On Aug. 17, 1770, he was added to a list called the “Moravian Society” – “that is, an association of such persons who are not full members of the Moravian congregation, but who are served by our [Moravian] missionaries’ counseling and visits.” (4) Four of Peter and Eva’s daughters were baptized at the Moravian Church in nearby Lititz between 1801 and 1803. Each was at least 17 years old when she was baptized. Several more where baptized as adults by the Moravian church at Gnadenhutten after the family moved west to Ohio. It seems unlikely that Peter ever joined the church. When he died, a Dunker pastor performed the funeral rites. (5)
Despite the family’s affiliation with a pacifist church, the Fredericks were involved in the Revolutionary War. Abraham served on the Lancaster County Committee of Observation and as an “almoner” for a militia company. Peter, John and Philip appear on the rolls of the same unit. And Peter’s brother Abraham was killed in the war. (6)
Peter is listed as a private in the Fifth Class of Capt. Thomas Robinson’s company, which mustered in Mount Joy Township on April 20, 1778. (7) His brother Philip appears in the company’s Third Class. The brothers appear on the company’s muster rolls consistently from that date until 1783. John’s name starts appearing in 1781 and their father is listed as the company’s “almoner” starting in 1782. The position of almoner was very rare and probably involved distributing aid to the needy, as was the case with almoners for church bodies.
The Pennsylvania Archives doesn’t contain any records that indicate active service for Robinson’s company during the dates covered by the 1778-1783 muster rolls. The company was part of Col. Alexander Lowrey’s battalion. Lowrey’s battalion was called into active service when threats arose in 1776 and 1777 but does not appear to have seen any action against the British. I have not found muster rolls for these deployments so it’s uncertain whether any of the Fredericks were involved. (8)
During the war, Peter also appears in Lancaster County tax records. He seems to make his first appearance in 1779 in Rapho Township, which adjoins Mount Joy Township. (9) Peter is listed as a shoemaker who owned 20 acres and a cow. His brother John is also listed in the township but without property. It’s possible they lived together.
In the list that covers late 1779 and the beginning of 1780, Peter and John are again listed in Rapho Township. Neither one is listed as owning any land. John owned two horses and three head of cattle and Peter owned none.
By 1781, Peter had moved back to Mount Joy Township. He is listed as a shoemaker who owned nothing but a cow. Judging from the lack of property indicated on the previous tax list and the fact that he moved back to Mount Joy, it seems likely that Peter had encountered economic difficulties and decided to move back with his father. Things remained about the same for the next few years. In 1782 and 1783, Peter owned a horse and a cow and lived in Mount Joy Township. (10)
Peter returned to Rapho Township by 1785. In that year, he is listed as owning 50 acres, two horses and two cattle. The following year, Peter is listed as owning 54 acres, two horses and a cow.
It seems likely that Peter’s move back to Rapho Township was prompted by changes in the family’s situation. About this time, Peter’s father appears to have given his land and mill to John and moved to Warwick Township. Abraham is listed that township’s tax records along with Philip, who is listed as owning 60 acres and two mills.
Peter’s name doesn’t seem to appear in the 1790 U.S. Census. Either he was missed or his family was living in a household headed by someone else. In Pennsylvania’s 1793 census, Peter is listed in Warwick Township. (11)
In the 1800 U.S. Census, Peter is listed in Mount Joy Township. His household contained three males under 10, a male age 26-44, a female under 10 and a female 16-25. It should be noted that Peter appear in Rapho Township the Pennsylvania census for 1800. However, that appears to be a mistake since he is listed as a shoemaker living in Mount Joy in the baptismal records of his daughters from 1801 to 1803 at the Lititz Moravian church.
Eva appears to have died at some point before 1800. She doesn’t seem to be included in the 1800 Census. In addition, when Maria Rachel was baptized in April 1801, the record notes that she was the daughter of the deceased Eva Hoog.
Peter does not appear in the 1810 Census records available online but it appears that some pages of the Rapho Township listings are missing so he might have been listed on one of these.
In 1812, Peter and his children moved westward to Tuscarawas County, Ohio.
The records of the Moravian Church in Gnadenhutten mention Peter’s arrival in an overview of activities for 1812. (12) He was part of a large group from Lititz – mostly Blickenderfers – who joined the congregation that year. The account lists him as “Brother Peter Frederick.” As the note continues, it mentions: “Peter Frederick is not yet baptized, also does not yet belong to church.” It seems most likely that the second reference is to the younger Peter, who was not baptized until 1815.
A Peter Frederick appears in Tuscarawas County task lists in 1816 but it’s hard to say which Peter it refers to. (13)
In the 1820 Census, Peter is listed in Dohrman Township. Peter’s household included two males under 10; a male 10-15; a male 16-25; a male 26-44; a male 45 and older; a female under 10; a female 10-15; a female 26-44; and a female 45 and older. Because of the ages of the people listed, it seems very likely that the family of one of Peter’s children lived in the household. Several of Peter’s children appear in the census records for nearby townships. Jacob lived in Dohrman Township and the younger Peter lived in Warwick Township, near his in-laws. John Blickenderfer, Caroline Elizabeth’s husband, also is listed in Warwick. (14)
The presence of a women older than 45 in Peter’s household raises the question of whether he had remarried. It should be noted that
The area where Peter settled later became part of Mill Township. The 1884 history of Tuscarawas County says, “The exact order of its settlement is not known, but in 1820 the following resident land-owners were here, and some had arrived many years before 1820: …Peter Frederick, a German and a shoe-maker from Pennsylvania, the northwest quarter of section 30.” (15)
A listing of Mill Township pioneers describes Peter’s land, saying that he “Owned 168 acres, the N.E. quarter of Sec. 21. In 1821 he divided this tract equally between his 3 sons, Abraham, Jacob and Joseph.” (16)
Peter died in 1825. The Gnadenhutten church book simply mentions the death of “the married Peter Friedrich, senr.” in August. The journal of Moravian preacher Jacob Rauschenberger lists his death under September, saying: “The married Peter Friederick died and was buried in Sharon. The funeral sermon was delivered by a Dunker preacher, by the name of Herman.” (17)
Peter is buried at the Sharon Moravian Cemetery in Tuscarawas. His tombstone is heavily damaged so a cemetery inventory only reads: “???RICK, Peter – 1825.” (18)
(1) Peter’s birth is listed under “Petrus” in the baptism records of the Moravian Church in Donegal/Mount Joy in Lancaster County, Pa. It appears in “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, by F. Edward Wright, Willow Bend Books, Westminster, Md., 2000, page 162. Peter is listed in Abraham’s will, cited at “Will Abstracts 1721-1819: Lancaster Co, PA,” in the USGenWeb archives. (2) Eva Hoog is listed as Peter’s wife in birth records cited in “Pennsylvania Births: Lancaster County, 1778-1800,” by John T. Humphrey, Humphrey Publications, Washington, DC, 1997. It’s possible that Eva was the Eva Maria Hoch who was born Dec. 13, 1757, in Lancaster County, to Hanns Jerg Hoch and his wife. The birth is listed at “Pennsylvania Births: Lancaster County, 1723-1777,” by John T. Humphrey, Humphrey Publications, Washington, DC, 1997. (3) The list of Peter and Eva’s children must be compiled from a variety of sources since the couple didn’t have their children baptized as infants and Peter didn’t leave a will. In short, daughters Caroline Elizabeth, Maria Rachel, Louise Salome, Eva Catharine and Barbara Margaret are specifically listed as Peter’s daughters in records of the Moravian church. Sons Abraham, Jacob and Joseph are listed as his sons in a deed in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. Neither the younger Peter nor John are specifically listed as his sons in any known records but they are so closely associated with the family in church records that it is virtually impossible for them to have any other father. Finally, Susannah Amalia is listed as Peter’s daughter in church records but she was born at least five years after Eva’s death, which means she was either the daughter of a previously unknown second wife or adopted. Now for the detailed explanations. The key child for many descendents, including our family, is the younger Peter. Although no record has come to light specifically stating that the Peters are father and son, this connection is virtually indisputable. Both Peters arrived in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, at the same time and apparently in the same group of settlers. They are listed in records of the Moravian church at Gnadenhutten. Several indisputable daughters of the elder Peter are listed in the same baptismal records as the younger Peter, proof of close ties among them. In addition, there are no other men surnamed Friedrich or Frederick who appear in Tuscarawas County records who could be the younger Peter’s father. Finally, DNA matches in Ancestry.com show strong connection with between our family and those descended from the elder Peter and also from his father, Abraham Friedrich. The records I just mentioned will be cited and discussed below. The links between the elder Peter and most of his other children are proved through surviving documents. Abraham, Jacob and Joseph are identified as Peter’s sons in an 1821 deed in which he divided a tract of land among the three. The record is mentioned in “Early Tuscarawas County land records,” Tuscarawas Pioneer Footprints, Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb. 1973, page 18, compiled by the Tuscarawas County Chapter of the Ohio Genealogical Society. Most of Peter’s daughters are well documented thanks to their frequent mention in Moravian church records. The births of Caroline Elisabeth, Eva Catharine, Louise Salome and Maria Rachel are listed in records of the church in Lititz, Pa. These are contained in images of “Register of Lititz Moravian Church in Pennsylvania (ChReg 75),” which were provided to Beverly Robertson by the Moravian Archives in Bethlehem, Pa. Additional information on the daughters – and some of the sons – appears in records of the Gnadenhutten church, which are in “Register of the Gnadenhütten and Sharon congregations in Ohio (ChReg 136),” also provided by the Moravian archives. These records contain the younger Peter’s birth date; the link to Barbara Margaretha as well as her husband’s name; the birth date and link for Caroline Elisabeth; and the names of the husbands of Maria Rachel and Catherine. Barbara’s approximate birth year is from the 1850 Census of Warwick Township, Tuscarawas County. The name of Caroline Elizabeth’s husband is listed in her death record, which is available at “Gnadenhutte Church Register, Vol. I of the Gnadenhutten Congregation on the Musking. started in the Year 1800,” prepared by Anneliese Rochester in 1987 and posted online at usgwarchives.net. The husband of Louise Salome is listed in the baptismal records at “Church Book of the Brethren’s Congregation of Beersheba on the Westside of the Muskingum River opened in the Year of Our Lord 1805,” translated and transcribed by Maxine Renner Eberle, 1987, Ragersville, Ohio, Historical Society. Like the younger Peter, a case must be built for a link to John, who appears to have been Peter’s eldest son. Unfortunately, the case isn’t nearly as strong as that for the younger Peter. John is mentioned in the Gnadenhutten church records, but only as the father of two daughters who were getting married. Although John appears to have spent some time in Virginia, he migrated to Tuscarawas County by the 1820s and later moved to Marion County, Ohio, like the younger Peter. John and the younger Peter appear in deeds in Marion County together, which is unlikely without a family connection. John’s birth date is indicated on his tombstones, as listed at “Marion County Cemetery Inscriptions,” compiled by Paul J. and Barbara Midlam, and available at www.heritagepursuit.com. The elder Peter had at least one more daughter, thought it seems that she was either adopted or born to a previously unknown second wife. Susanna Amelia Friedrich was born Oct. 31, 1805, about five years after the death of Eva, according to the records of her adult baptism and marriage, which appear in the Gnadenhutten records provided by the Moravian archives. Her marriage record specifically states that Peter Friedrich was her father. However, the spot for her mother’s name was left blank, presumably so it could be completed later. The ink of the page is very faded, but it seems to indicate that Peter was a “Witver,” or widower. It should be noted that Susana is listed as Susannah Amanda Frederick in “Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013,” at FamilySearch.org. In addition to the children list above, it’s possible that the Fredericks had a son who died as a newborn. According to :Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” page 178, the records of the Donegal/Mount Joy Moravian Church list the following death: “29 Jun 1790, a newborn son of Pet (?) Friedrich.” (4) “Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Church Records of the 18th Century,” Vol. 4, Page 186. (5) “Pennsylvania Births: Lancaster County, 1778-1800,” by Humphrey. These baptismal records and Peter’s death record also appear in the records provided by the Moravian Archives in Bethlehem. (6) See Abraham Frederick Sr.’s profile for details on the family’s activities during the war. (7) Peter’s militia records appear in the Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, Vol. VII, pages 196-197, 203-204, 208-209, 450-452, 685-687, 699-701, 723-724, 739-740, 756-757, 777 and 783-785. (8) Lowrey’s military activities are mentioned in a profile in “History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,” by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans, 1883, page 762. (9) Unless otherwise noted, the tax records are from “Pennsylvania, Tax and Exoneration, 1768-1801,” available at Ancestery.com. (10) The 1782 list is in Pennsylvania Archives, Series 3, Vol. 17, page 674. (11) The Pennsylvania censuses are available at “Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863,” at Ancestry.com. (12) “Excerpts From Ministers Diaries Found at the Gnadenhutten Moravian Church located at Gnadenhutten, Tuscarawas County, Ohio,” posted on Rootsweb.com on July 24, 1999 by Mary Meyers Williams. (13) “Early Ohio Tax Records,” compiled by Esther Weygandt Powell, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. Baltimore, page 388. (14) The transcription available at Ancestry.com indicates that the Fredericks and most of the surrounding families owned slaves at the time of the 1820 Census. This is incorrect. The census taker transposed the columns for occupations and for slaves, which gives the impression that everyone in the area owned slaves but no one was a farmer. (15) “The History of Tuscarawas County, Ohio,” published by Warner, Beers in 1884, page 579. (16) Mill Township Pioneers in “Early Tuscarawas County land records,” an articles in Tuscarawas Pioneer Footprints, by the Tuscarawas County Chapter of the Ohio Genealogical Society, Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb. 1973, page 18. (17) The first record is from the church book information provided by the Moravian archives in Bethlehem. The second record is from “Diary of Gnadenhutten, Beersheba and Sharon, May 1816 to Dec 31 1826,” by Jacob Rauschenberger, Pastor, translation by Allen P. Zimmerman at Gnadenhutten, Ohio 1955, Church records from Tuscarawas County, Posted on Rootsweb, posted July 25-28, 1999. (18) “Tuscarawas County, Ohio, Cemeteries,” Vol. III, Tuscarawas County Genealogical Society, New Philadelphia, Ohio, 1984, page 185.
PETER and FANNY FREDERICK
Peter Frederick was born Feb. 2, 1792, to Peter and Eva (Hoog) Frederick in Lancaster County, Pa. (1)
Married Verona Keller on Feb. 22, 1813, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. Verona, who is listed as Fanny in later records, was born in Switzerland to Martin and Eva Keller. (2)
Henry Frederick, born Feb. 2, 1814.
Mary Frederick, born March 21, 1816. Married Joseph Kimball Matteson.
Eve Caroline Frederick, born Jan. 18, 1818. Married Green G. Miller.
Benjamin Frederick, born May 6, 1820. Died Feb. 13, 1824.
Elizabeth Frederick, born Jan. 21, 1823. Married John C. Brady.
Jacob Frederick, born May 11, 1826.
Sarah Frederick (baptized as Salome), born Dec. 27, 1828. Married Edward C. Warner.
Diana Frederick, born about 1831. Married Willy Fowler.
Peter’s family moved from Pennsylvania to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, when he was about 20 years old. In 1812, the arrival of his father and other relatives from Lititz, Pa., is recorded in the records of the Moravian Church at Gnadenhutten. The minister’s diary mentions the arrival of Brother Peter Frederick, probably the elder Peter since he had been baptized as an infant at the Moravian church in Mount Joy. In a listing of other newcomers, the younger Peter is mentioned: “Peter Frederick is not yet baptized, also does not yet belong to church.”
Peter served in the Ohio militia during the War of 1812. Peter Frederick is listed as a private in the company of Capt. George Richardson, which served from Aug. 29 to Oct. 29, 1812, and from Aug. 31 to Dec. 1, 1813. The company’s home county is not indicated but many of the soldiers’ names – including Richardson’s – match those of men who appear in Tuscarawas County in the 1820 Census. (4) Although Peter’s family was affiliated with the pacifist Moravian church, they do not seem to have shied away from military service. His father, uncles and grandfather served in the Lancaster County militia during the Revolution. (5)
Peter’s first enlistment in the militia followed the surrender of Detroit to the British. It seems likely the company was mustered as a response to that debacle. The second period of enlistment would have encompassed the naval Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of the Thames, a land battle in Ontario, Canada. The militia was probably called to active duty as a precaution. Peter’s widow was later awarded bounty lands because she was the widow of a veteran of the war.
In early 1813, Peter married Verona Keller at the Moravian Church at Gnadenhutten. She had been born in Switzerland and her family had immigrated to the United States in 1803 and settled in Tuscarawas County. (6)
The Keller family was very active in the Gnadenhutten church and Verona’s name – under various spellings – appears numerous times in its records. (7) On June 4, 1803, she was one of the “older girls” who observed their festival. On Sept. 10, 1809, she was received into the congregation. In June 1812, she was confirmed and in July she took her first communion.
About a year after they married, the couple’s first child was born. The baptismal record of “Heinrich” from April 3, 1814, notes that Peter was a farmer who lived on the farm of Christian Blickensdoerfer, Peter’s brother-in-law. (7a)
On May 14, 1815, John Peter Friedrich was baptized at the Sharon Moravian Church. Over the next 15 years, Peter and Verona had their children baptized at Sharon or Gnadenhutten. On Sept. 10, 1826, Peter was a first-time participant in the choir festival for married brothers and sisters. (7b)
The 1820 and 1830 censuses list Peter in Warwick Township, Tuscarawas County. In 1820, the household contained two males under age 10; one male 16-25; one male 26-44; two females under 10; a female 10-15; and a female 26-44. (8) Since the household contained more children than the couple had at the time, it seems likely that a brother and sister of either Peter or Fanny lived in there. In 1830, the household contained a male under 5, a male 15-19, a male 30-39, a female under 5, a female 5-9, a female 10-14, a female 15-19 and a female 30-39.
Tragedy struck the family in 1824 when 3-year-old Benjamin died. The Moravian pastor’s diary notes, “He died on the 13th at three. Since it snowed and rained incessantly, and as the river had already risen high, we could not go to Sharon so the body was interred in quietness.” Benjamin was probably the male child who was listed in the 1820 Census but not in the 1830.
At some point during the early 1830s, the Fredericks moved from Tuscarawas County to Marion County, Ohio. It seems likely they moved in 1830 or 1831 since the birth of Diana was not listed in the Gnadenhutten church records.
Although it’s uncertain exactly when the family arrived in Marion County, Peter was already selling land there in 1834. On March 7 of that year, Peter sold 80 acres to Joseph Smith. On Aug. 30 of that year, Peter was listed as a resident of the county when he paid Thomas Hewitt $50 for Lot No. 1 in the Town Plat of Big Island Township. Over the next few years Peter was involved in a number of real estate transactions in Marion County, usually buying or selling tracts of land covering 40 or 80 acres. (9)
The 1840 Census indicates that Peter Frederick’s household in Big Island Township contained a male 10-14, a male 40-49, a female under 5, a female 5-9, a female 10-14, a female 15-19 and a female 40-49.
Peter operated a hotel in Big Island Township for a time. “History of Marion County, Ohio and Representative Citizens,” from 1907, states: “In 1831 Big Island had three stores and two taverns. Mr. Morgan kept hotel in a brick building in the place, which was afterwards conducted by D. Thurlow, John R. Knapp, Sr., Peter Frederick and Hiram Halsted.” (10)
It appears that Peter ran a tavern in his hotel and that it sometimes landed him in trouble. The docket for the October 1846 term of the Marion County Common Pleas Court lists the case “State of Ohio vs. Peter Frederick” for keeping a tavern without a license. The March 1847 term lists “State of Ohio vs. Peter Frederick” for keeping a tavern. It’s likely these involve the same case, but it’s possible two separate infractions were involved. (11)
The 1907 history of Marion County offers an interesting look at early life in the Fredericks’ hometown. “In the early days Big Island was a favorite place of rendezvous on military muster day. The event was usually held on Saturday afternoon when drinking and fighting were the order of the day. It is said that on one such occasion on Christmas Day, 13 fights were in full swing at one time. It was called a ‘free for all’ and no one ever attempted to interfere with the combatants.” It seems likely that Peter’s tavern was a focal point of some of these activities. (12)
For some reason, Peter and Fanny seem to have been missed by the census taker in 1850, and Fanny was missed again in 1860.
Peter died May 2, 1852.
In 1856, Fanny applied for a land bounty based on Peter’s service in the War of 1812. She received 160 acres.
Fanny died June 13, 1869. She is buried beside her husband at Pleasant Hill Cemetery in Big Island Township. (13) Sadly, a visit to the cemetery in 2016 reveals that both of their tombstones – apparently of thin, fragile marble – had broken off and were propped against another stone.
(1) Peter’s birth date is listed in his adult baptismal records in “Register of the Gnadenhütten and Sharon congregations in Ohio (ChReg 136),” provided by the Moravian archives at the request of Beverly Robertson. Peter’s tombstone says he was “Age 60y 3 m” when he died May 2, 1852, according to the transcriptions of Pleasant Hill Cemetery in Big Island Township, Marion County, Ohio, at Findagrave.com. Although no record has come to light that specifically state that the Peters are father and son, this connection is virtually indisputable. Both Peters arrived in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, at the same time and apparently in the same group of settlers. The extended Friedrich family moved to Tuscarawas County from the area around Lititz, Lancaster County, Pa., in 1812. The move is mentioned in church records available at “Excerpts From Ministers Diaries Found at the Gnadenhutten Moravian Church located at Gnadenhutten, Tuscarawas County, Ohio,” posted on Rootsweb.com on July 24, 1999 by Mary Meyers Williams. The information appears to list two Peter Friedrichs since one is listed as “Brother Peter Friedrich,” while an unbaptized Peter Friedrich is also mentioned. In the best indication of a close relationship, the known children of the elder Peter serve as baptismal sponsors for the younger Peter’s children. In addition, there are no other men surnamed Friedrich or Frederick who appear in Tuscarawas County records who could be the younger Peter’s father. In fact, it appears to be virtually certain that all of the Fredericks who appear in records from the area were children of the elder Peter. Finally, DNA matches in Ancestry.com show strong connection with between our family and those descended from the elder Peter and also from his father, Abraham Friedrich. On a side note, it should be mentioned that the obituary of the younger Peter’s son Jacob provides information that conflicts with this. The obituary indicates that Jacob spent his early childhood near Chillicothe. The town is in Ross County, which is the home to another Frederick family. However, the Gnadenhutten records specifically state that this Jacob was the son of the younger Peter. It’s possible that the friend who wrote the obituary was ill-informed. (2) The marriage is recorded at “Old Marriages Recorded in County Courts Through 1820: An Index,” by Jean Nathan, compiled and published by the Ohio Genealogical Society, page 367. The National Archives has Fanny Frederick’s application for a land bounty based on Peter’s service in the War of 1812. Copies of the original documents were provided by Beverly Robertson, who found them at the National Archives. It mentioned that she was married in March 1813 by George Miller, a minister of the Gospel. However, there’s a faint note above this that seems to indicate that Fanny was uncertain of the date of the married. Verona – sometimes spelled Verone – is listed as the daughter of Martin and Eva Keller in her father’s will, an abstract of which is available in “Gateway to the West,” Vol. II, compiled by Ruth Bowers and Anita Short; Genealogical Publishing Co., page 560. It is in Tuscarawas County Will Book 1, page 1. Fanny’s tombstone lies against Peter’s at Pleasant Hill Cemetery. It should be noted that her son Jacob’s death certificate lists his mother as Elizabeth, though his obituary lists her name as Fanny. Her tombstone says, “Fanny.” Jacob’s death certificate was issued Aug. 9, 1910, in Marion County, Ohio. The obituary appears in the Aug. 20, 1910, edition of The Marion Weekly Star of Marion, Ohio. Interestingly, Fanny’s children – or at least those who provided responses to census takers – were very confused about her place of birth. The 1880 Census says Jacob’s father was born in Pennsylvania and his mother was born in New York. The 1910 Census of Marion, Ohio, states that Jacob’s father was born in Ohio and mother was born in Virginia. In 1880, the census of Marion County said Eve Caroline Miller’s parents were both born in Pennsylvania. In 1900, the census says that her parents were both born in Germany. In all of these cases, it seems likely that the information was provided by a spouse or caregiver. The only census that appears to get things right is Henry’s listing in Marion County in 1880, which says his father was born in Pennsylvania and mother in Switzerland. (3) The baptisms of Peter and Verona Friedrich’s children from Henry (or Heinrich) through Sarah (or Salome) are listed in the records of the Gnadenhutten church that were provided by the Moravian archives. Diana – in addition to all of the other children and their spouses – is listed in a deed that records the sale of property by Jacob’s heirs. The deed is in Marion County Deed Book 24, page 566, and is dated Aug. 14, 1853. Diana’s birth date is indicated on her grave at Pleasant Hill Cemetery, which can be seen at Findagrave.com. (4) Peter is listed in “Roster of Ohio Soldiers in the War of 1812,” published by the Adjutant General of Ohio in 1916, pages 17 and 85. One of the names on the list is “Martin Kellar,” probably Peter’s future brother-in-law. It should be noted that another Peter Frederick from Ross County and his brothers also served in the militia in 1812. (5) Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, Vol. VII, pages 197, 204, 209, 250-252, 739-740 and others. (6) “Gnadenhutte Church Register, Vol. I of the Gnadenhutten Congregation on the Musking. started in the Year 1800,” prepared by Anneliese Rochester in 1987 and posted online at usgwarchives.net. Eva Keller’s death notice says, “In Sep 1803 she came with her family from Europe into this area.” (7) The church records are available at “Excerpts From Ministers Diaries Found at the Gnadenhutten Moravian Church located at Gnadenhutten, Tuscarawas County, Ohio” and “Diary of Gnadenhutten, Beersheba and Sharon,” from Church Records of Tuscarawas County, posted to Rootsweb.com in July 1999.” (7a) From the Gnadenhutten records provided the Moravian archives. (7b) The baptisms are all listed in the Gnadenhutten records provided by the Moravian archives. The choir festival is noted in “Diary of Gnadenhutten, Beersheba and Sharon,” available at Rootsweb. (8) The transcription available at Ancestry.com indicates that the Fredericks and most of the surrounding families owned slaves at the time of the 1820 Census. This is incorrect. The census taker transposed the columns for occupations and for slaves, which gives the impression that everyone in the area owned slaves but no one was a farmer. (9) The March transaction appears in Marion County Deed Book 11, page 303. The August transaction appears in Deed Book 8, page 135. (10) “History of Marion County, Ohio and Representative Citizens,” edited and compiled by J. Wilbur Jacoby, 1907, pages 104-105. Peter’s proprietorship of the hotel is also mention in “The History of Marion County, Ohio,” 1883, page 652. (11) “Marion County, Ohio, Court Records,” Marion Area Genealogical Society. (12) “History of Marion County, Ohio and Representative Citizens,” page 105. (13) The graves are listed at Findagrave.com under Pleasant Hill Cemetery in Big Island, Marion County, Ohio.
JACOB and KATIE FREDERICK
Jacob Frederick was born in May 11, 1826, to Peter and Fanny Frederic in Ohio, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. (1)
Jacob was married three times. On June 8, 1848, he married Mary McDaniel, who died in 1862. On June 16, 1864, he married Catharine Dove, who died in 1873. After “several years as a widower,” Jacob married Mary Smallwood. (2)
Jacob’s children with Mary McDaniel: (3)
Fanny Elizabeth Frederick, born July 21, 1849. Married Alexander Hedges.
Nancy Jane Frederick, born about Feb. 20, 1851. Married Thomas W. Pangborn.
Amanda Mary Frederick, born Oct. 13, 1852. Married Jacob Sylvester Brady.
James Henry Frederick, born Oct. 15, 1854.
Sarah J. Frederick, born about 1856. Married Byron Brady.
William J. Frederick, born about 1857.
Jacob’s children with Catharine Dove:
Richard Frederick, born about 1864.
Emma Frederick, born Oct. 22, 1867. Married John F. Fowler.
Caroline Frederick, or Carrie, born in 1868. Married a man named Forider, possibly Frederick.
Clarinda Frederick, or Clara, born April 12, 1870. Married Henry L. James.
Robert Frederick, born about 1871.
Olive Elnora Frederick, or Nora, born March 8, 1872. Married Thomas C. McDaniel.
Jacob’s family lived in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, during the 1820s and early 1830s. They moved westward to Marion County during the 1830s.
Jacob appears to have established his own homestead before he was 20 years old. He is listed as a real estate owner in Jackson Township, Wyandot County, Ohio, when it was separated from Hardin County in 1845. (4)
On June 8, 1848, Jacob married Mary McDaniel, who was born about 1831 in Ohio. She was the daughter of James McDaniel, who also lived in Jackson Township. (5)
The 1850 Census lists Jacob as a 23-year-old farmer in Jackson Township. His wife was 19-year-old Mary. The only other occupant of his household was the 1-year-old Elizabeth. Jacob is not listed as owning any real estate.
The 1850 Census’ agricultural schedules provide a good look at the Fredericks’ farm.
The farm covered 40 acres of improved land and 40 acres of unimproved land, the value of which is not stated. Jacob owned farm implements and machinery worth $100. The livestock included 3 horses, 1 milk cow, 11 sheep and 20 swine, valued at a total of $195. The farm produced 100 bushels of wheat, 200 bushels of Indian corn, 90 bushels of oats, 24 pounds of wool, 3 bushels of peas and beans, 25 bushels of Irish potatoes, 50 pounds of butter, 4 tons of hay and 60 pounds of maple sugar 15. The value of the animals slaughtered was $15.
The 1860 Census lists Jacob as a 34-year-old farmer in Jackson Township, with real estate valued at $2,000 and personal property valued at $150. In addition to his wife Mary, 28 years old, his household included Fanny E., 11; Nancy, 9; Mary M., 7; James K. 5; Sarah J., 4; and William J., 3.
Mary died Feb. 8, 1862 and was buried at Jackson Center Cemetery in Wyandot County. (6)
On June 16, 1864, Jacob married Catharine Dove in Wyandot County. (7) Catharine, who also was known as Katie, was the daughter of Richard and Sarah Dove. The Doves appear in the 1860 in Jackson Township, Hardin County, which abuts Wyandot County. (8)
The Fredericks moved to Marion County sometime before Nora was born in 1872 in Morral.
Tragically, Jacob was widowed again in 1873. (9)
Jacob’s obituary reports that he remained a widower for several years before marrying “Mrs. Mary Smallwood.” However, Marion County records show that Jacob Frederick married “Mrs. Mary Baker” on Nov. 4, 1876. It seems likely that Smallwood was her maiden name and Baker was her surname during her first marriage, although the opposite is also possible. (10)
In the 1880 Census, Jacob is listed as a farmer in Montgomery Township, Marion County. His wife is listed as Mary, who was 44 and had been born in New York. No children younger than Nora are listed, which would seem to indicate that Mary had no children with Richard before this point.
The agricultural schedule for the 1880 Census indicates that Fredericks rented their farm for a share of the produce. The farm contained 30 acres of tilled land, 13 acres of meadowland, pastureland or orchard, 117 acres of woodland and 14 other acres of improved land. The farm was valued as $4,800. Farming implements and machinery was valued at $50 and livestock valued at $300. In 1879, Jacob paid $12 for farm labor. The value of all farm production for 1879 was $600. The Fredericks owned four horses; 3 milk cows, which produced 300 pounds of butter in 1879; 13 sheep, which produced 13 fleeces that weighed a total of 52 pounds; eight swine; and 60 barnyard poultry, which produced 150 dozen eggs. In 1879, they had planted 12 acres in corn, which produced 200 bushels; seven in oats, which produced 133 bushels; 10 acres in wheat, which produced 137 bushels; and an acre in Irish potatoes, which produced 40 bushels. They also grew apples on an acre, which contained 50 trees and produced 10 bushels, valued at $5. They cut 25 cords of wood and sold $50 worth. (11)
Mary died about 1887 and the children then lived with a cousin, Vesta, and her husband Riley Davis. (12)
It appears that Jacob’s faith was very important to him. His obituary says, “He ever believed in God and in the power of Christ to forgive sins, and many years ago he united as a member of M.E. church at Forest, and ever lived a humble, faithful Christian.” His funeral was held at the Pleasant Hill Methodist Church, attended by the Rev. J.A. Sutton of LaRue, who also wrote Jacob’s obituary. The obit goes on to say: “Years ago, when pastor of the Big Island church, I formed a very pleasant acquaintance with Father Frederick. He favorably impressed me with his kind, tender, loving mien and manner and it is with pleasure that I now think of him, his genial ways and gentle words. He frequently attended church service and gave me every assurance that he was endeavoring to lead the life of a true, humble Christian, merely waiting on the border to pass from us into the summer land above. J.A. Sutton.”
Late in life, Jacob suffered from economic and health problems. Records of the Marion County Infirmary in Marion Township list Jacob as a boarder on March 9, 1904. (13) The 1910 Census lists Jacob as an inmate of the infirmary. The census indicates that Jacob was an 84-year-old widower who was not able to read or write.
The notice of his death in The Marion Weekly Star indicates that he had been “removed to the infirmary over 10 years ago. He was at one time a well-known farmer, but was overtaken by misfortune and lost all he had.” His obituary notes: “For years past he was in failing health, and slowly and surely descended to the tomb, dying of age and its attending infirmities, leaving ten children, forty-three grandchildren and sixteen great-grandchildren.” (14)
Jacob died Aug. 8, 1910. He was buried at Pleasant Hill Cemetery in Big Island Township. (15)
(1) Jacob’s parents and birth date are listed in his adult baptismal records in “Register of the Gnadenhütten and Sharon congregations in Ohio (ChReg 136),” provided by the Moravian archives at the request of Beverly Robertson. Jacob’s parents are listed as Peter and Elizabeth on his death certificate issued Aug. 9, 1910, in Marion County, Ohio. His obituary in the Aug. 20, 1910, edition of The Marion Weekly Star of Marion, Ohio, lists his parents as Peter and Fanny Frederick. The obituary also says that he was born on May 11, 1875, but that is obviously an error since it says he was 85 years old. It also says he moved from Chillicothe, which is in Ross County, when he was young. However, Ross County was actually the home of a different Frederick family. It’s possible that the inaccurate information was provided by an ill-informed family member or friend or a staff member at the infirmary in Marion County, where Jacob spent his final years. (2) Frederick’s obituary lists each marriage briefly. The marriages to Mary McDaniel and Catherine Dove are listed in “Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013,” at FamilySearch.org. Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013, FamilySearch.orgOhio, County Marriages, 1789-2013, FamilySearch.orgOhio, County Marriages, 1789-2013, FamilySearcIt should be noted that another marriage involving a Jacob Frederick appears in Wyandot County records, but it appears to involve a different man. On June 22, 1854, a Jacob Frederick – possibly a cousin – married Mary Drum. This marriage is recorded in Wyandot County Probate Court Marriage Book 2, page 105. This couple appears in Ohio Township, Franklin County, Kan., in the 1860 Census. (3) All information on Nora comes from her funeral book. Confirmed in “Ohio, Births and Christenings, 1821-1962,” FamilySearch.com. Fanny’s information comes from her death certificate, which was recorded Jan. 18, 1919, in Marion County, Ohio. Clara’s information comes from her death certificate, filed in Wyandot County, Ohio, on Jan. 1, 1940. Nancy Jane’s information comes from her death certificate, filed Jan. 14, 1924, in Marion County. Amanda’s comes from her death certificate, filed March 18, 1939, in Marion County. James Henry’s parents and birth date are listed in the Illinois death records available through FamilySearch.com. Emma’s parents, birth date and husband are listed in her death certificate at Ancestry.com, “Illinois, Deaths and Stillbirths Index, 1916-1947.” Other children’s names and birth dates come from the 1850 Census of Jackson Township, Wyandot County, Ohio; the 1860 Census of the same township; and the 1880 U.S. Census of Montgomery Township, Marion County, Ohio. The last name of Carrie’s husband comes from an unpublished McDaniel genealogy provided by Ardeth Semler of Arlington, Ohio, in 1989. A Carey Forider is listed as the spouse of Frederick Forider in the 1900 Census of Marion, Marion County, Ohio. Her birth date is listed as May 1868. Elizabeth’s marriage is recorded in “Marion County, Ohio – Marriages – Vol. 7,” extracted by Allen L. Potts, available at www.heritagepursuit.com/Marion /Marriages/marr7ef.htm. Sarah’s husband is listed in “The History of Marion County, Ohio, 1893,” page 655. The McDaniel genealogy attributes four children – Richard, Henry, Emma and Jane – to Jacob’s third wife, Mary. However, Jane was born in 1851, which would make her the daughter of Mary McDaniel. Henry’s death record specifically states that his mother was Mary McDaniels. It seems certain that Richard was Catharine’s son since his age, according to the 1880 Census, would put his birth during Jacob and Catharine’s marriage. In addition, Nora’s funeral book lists Carrie, Clara, Robert and Richard as siblings but doesn’t list her known half- or step-siblings, which would seem to indicate that Richard was her full brother. (4) “The History of Wyandot County, Ohio,” page 835. Jacob’s name appears – out of alphabetical order – at the end a list of real estate owners for that year, which may indicate that he was a late addition. (5) Wyandot County Probate Court Marriage Book 1, page 104. (6) “Wyandot County, Ohio, Cemetery Burial Records,” page 380. (7) Wyandot County Probate Court Marriage Book 3, page 179. The death certificate of her daughter Clara states that her first name was Caroline, but this seems unlikely in light of other evidence. (8) Richard Dove is listed as a 39-year-old Farmer who was born in Virginia. Sarah was 35, and was born in New York. Their children were: Catharine, 25; William, 13; Sarah E, 11; Electia Ann (probably the name was really Electra Ann), 9; Mary Eta, 7; Emily, probably 7; John, 1; and Harry, 1. All of the children were born in Ohio. (9) In correspondence in 1999, Barbara Porter of Lakeside, Ariz., reported that Catharine Dove Frederick died Aug. 5, 1873 at Big Island, Marion County, Ohio, of consumption. (10) The marriage to Mary Baker is found in “Ohio, Marriages, 1800-1958,” at index, FamilySearch.com. The image reveals her identification as “Mrs. Mary Baker.” (11) Ancestry.com, “Selected U.S. Federal Census Non-Population Schedules, 1850-1880.” (12) McDaniel genealogy. (13) “Marion County Infirmary Records, 1902 to 1907,” available at the Marion Public Library. (14) The death notice appears in the Aug. 13, 1910, edition of The Weekly Star of Marion, Ohio. (15) Jacob’s death certificate issued Aug. 9, 1910, in Marion County, Ohio.